Monochromator Or Focusing Device Patents (Class 378/84)
  • Patent number: 10976483
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are techniques for fabricating straight or slanted variable-etch-depth gratings. A photoresist material for fabricating a variable-etch-depth grating in a substrate is sensitive to light with a wavelength shorter than 300 nm and has an etch rate comparable to the etch rate of the substrate. A depth of an exposed portion of a photoresist material layer including the photoresist material correlates with the exposure dose. After exposure using a gray-scale mask and development, the photoresist material layer has a non-uniform thickness. The photoresist material layer with the non-uniform thickness and the underlying substrate are etched using a straight etching or slanted etching process to form the straight or slanted variable-etch-depth grating in the substrate. The variable-etch-depth grating is characterized by a non-uniform depth profile corresponding to the non-uniform thickness of the photoresist material layer before etching.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2020
    Date of Patent: April 13, 2021
    Assignee: FACEBOOK TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
    Inventors: Ankit Vora, Nihar Ranjan Mohanty, Austin Lane, Matthew E. Colburn, Elliott Franke
  • Patent number: 10859520
    Abstract: An X-ray generation apparatus comprising: an X-ray generating unit; a dispersive crystal whose surface is irradiated with an X-ray generated from the X-ray generating unit in order to monochromatize the X-ray; and a detecting unit that detects an X-ray generated from a sample irradiated with the X-ray monochromatized by the dispersive crystal. The dispersive crystal has a single-bent shape containing the surface that is a concave surface formed by integrating concave curve lines continuously along an axis perpendicular to a plane including the concave curve line. A direction in which a position on the surface irradiated with the X-ray generated from the X-ray generating unit moves is the direction along the axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 8, 2020
    Assignee: HORIBA, LTD.
    Inventors: Tetsuya Takimoto, Hideo Ueda
  • Patent number: 10677744
    Abstract: Embodiments provide a multi-cone X-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer for spectroscopy of small x-ray sources with a well-defined spectral resolution. The spectrometer includes a glass substrate machined to a multi-cone form; and a thin crystal slab attached to the glass substrate, whereby the multi-cone X-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer provides rotational symmetry of a ray pattern, providing for accurate imaging, for each wavelength in the spectral range of interest. One or more embodiments include a streak camera and/or a gated strip detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2020
    Assignee: U.S. Department of Energy
    Inventors: Manfred Bitter, Kenneth W. Hill, Philip Efthimion, Luis Delgado-Apariccio, Novimir Pablant, Lan Gao, Brian Kraus
  • Patent number: 10656517
    Abstract: This application discloses a computing system to simulate a wafer image based on a mandrel mask and a block mask to be utilized to print a final wafer image on a substrate. To simulate the wafer image the computing system can estimate dummy sidewalls based on the mandrel mask, estimate contours of the block mask, and determine the simulated wafer image based on differences between the dummy sidewalls and the estimated contours of the block mask. The computing system can compare the simulated wafer image against a target wafer image in a layout design to identify hotspots where the simulated wafer image deviates from the target wafer image. Based on the identified hotspots, the computing system can modify the target wafer image in the layout design, prioritize edge modification in a subsequent optical proximity correction process, or modify computation of image error, which drives the optical proximity correction process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2020
    Assignee: Mentor Graphics Corporation
    Inventors: James C. Word, Shady AbdelWahed
  • Patent number: 10468149
    Abstract: Extreme ultraviolet mirrors and masks used in lithography and methods for manufacturing an extreme ultraviolet mirror or mask. Initial data is obtained that includes materials and optical properties for a first intermixed layer, a second intermixed layer, a first pure layer, and a second pure layer in each of a plurality of periods of a multi-layer stack for an optical element. For multiple thicknesses for the first pure layer and multiple thicknesses for the second pure layer, a reflectivity of the multi-layer stack is determined based on the initial data, a thickness received for the first intermixed layer, and a thickness received for the second intermixed layer. One of the thicknesses for the first pure layer and one of the thicknesses for the second pure layer are selected that maximize the reflectivity of the multi-layer stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2019
    Assignee: GLOBALFOUNDRIES INC.
    Inventors: Yulu Chen, Francis Goodwin, Jed Rankin, Lei Sun, Obert Reeves Wood, II
  • Patent number: 10436723
    Abstract: Only X-rays having a specific wavelength, selected from a group of focusing X-rays diffracted from a sample, are reflected from a monochromator based on a Bragg's condition, passed through a receiving slit and detected by an X-ray detector. The monochromator is configured to be freely removable, and arranged between the sample and a focal point at which the wavelength-selected focusing X-rays diffracted from the sample are directly focused. At this time, the monochromator is moved so as to position the monochromator as close to the focal point as possible. The monochromator comprises a multilayer mirror having an internal interplanar spacing, wherein said internal interplanar spacing varies continuously from one end of the monochromator to the other end.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2019
    Assignee: RIGAKU CORPORATION
    Inventors: Takeshi Osakabe, Tetsuya Ozawa, Kazuhiko Omote, Licai Jiang, Boris Verman, Yuriy Platonov
  • Patent number: 10395789
    Abstract: Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2019
    Assignees: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, UChicago Argonne, LLC
    Inventors: John Jay Sinsheimer, Raymond P. Conley, Nathalie Christine Dominique Bouet, Eric Y. Dooryhee, Sanjit K. Ghose
  • Patent number: 10296725
    Abstract: To provide a structure refining apparatus, a method and a program capable of univocally and appropriately setting a restraint with a statistically feasible intensity and specifying a crystal structure model making use of a measurement result under a constraint condition to reasonable known data. A structure refining apparatus 100 adjusting the crystal structure model on the basis of the measurement result and the known data includes a restraint applying unit 120 configured to apply the restraint such that a divergence between a parameter specifying a crystal structure and a known representative value becomes equivalent to a standard uncertainty of the known representative value and a structure specifying unit 140 configured to specify the crystal structure model on the basis of the measurement result under the applied restraint.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2019
    Assignee: RIGAKU CORPORATION
    Inventor: Hisashi Konaka
  • Patent number: 10191387
    Abstract: A reflective mirror is provided with a base and a multilayer film including a first layer and a second layer laminated alternately on the base and capable of reflecting at least a portion of incident light. The multilayer film is provided with a first portion having a first thickness, and with a second portion having a second thickness that is different from the first thickness, and which is provided at a position rotationally symmetric to that of the first portion about an optical axis of the reflective mirror.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2019
    Assignee: Nikon Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshio Kawabe, Hiroshi Chiba
  • Patent number: 10186341
    Abstract: An X-ray source comprising: an elongate tubular housing adapted to be fitted into a port of and extend into a chamber containing a sample to be analyzed, said housing containing: an electron gun and a target mounted in the housing, the electron gun being arranged to direct electrons to a point on the target such that the target radiates X-rays; and a monochromator arranged to focus X-rays radiated from the target to a focal point on a sample in the chamber; wherein the monochromator is positioned, and comprises a material selected such that the target, the monochromator and the focal point on the sample are substantially in-line within the envelope of the tubular housing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2019
    Assignee: Torr Scientific Ltd.
    Inventor: David Alan Bates
  • Patent number: 9910193
    Abstract: A reflective optical element and an EUV lithography appliance containing one such element are provided, the appliance displaying a low propensity to contamination. The reflective optical element has a protective layer system includes at least two layers. The optical characteristics of the protective layer system are between those of a spacer and an absorber, or correspond to those of a spacer. The selection of a material with the smallest possible imaginary part and a real part which is as close to 1 as possible in terms of the refractive index leads to a plateau-type reflectivity course according to the thickness of the protective layer system between two thicknesses d1 and d2. The thickness of the protective layer system is selected in such a way that it is less than d2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2014
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2018
    Assignee: Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH
    Inventors: Johann Trenkler, Hans-Juergen Mann, Udo Nothelfer
  • Patent number: 9823202
    Abstract: A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2017
    Assignee: THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Daniel Stutman, Michael Finkenthal
  • Patent number: 9658175
    Abstract: An X-ray analyzer is provided with: a sample stage on which a sample is disposed; an X-ray source configured to irradiate the sample with a primary X-ray at a first angle; a detector configured to detect a secondary X-ray generated from the sample; a position adjustment mechanism configured to adjust a relative position between the sample stage and the primary X-ray; a first light source configured to emit a first light beam at a second angle toward a focal position of the primary X-ray or toward a predetermined position; and a second light source configured to emit a second light beam at a third angle toward the focal position or toward the predetermined position, wherein the first light beam and the second light beam are configured to have visibility sufficient for enabling visual distinction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Assignee: HITACHI HIGH-TECH SCIENCE CORPORATION
    Inventor: Ryusuke Hirose
  • Patent number: 9448191
    Abstract: An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer irradiates a measurement sample 1 with primary X rays from an X-ray source, and excites an element in the sample 1 to emit fluorescence X rays, and the primary X-rays are partially scattered as scattered X rays from the sample 1. A spectroscopic system is placed so that a first spectroscopic unit, a second spectroscopic unit, and a single X-ray detector form an optimized optical system. The first spectroscopic unit disperses the fluorescence X rays to collect the resultant X rays onto the X-ray detector. The second spectroscopic unit disperses the scattered X rays to collect the resultant X rays onto the X-ray detector. In this manner, the spectroscopic system disperses the fluorescence X rays and the scattered X rays so that the intensity of the fluorescence X rays and the intensity of the scattered X rays can be detected by the single X-ray detector 24.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2016
    Assignee: Techno-X Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tadashi Utaka, Koichi Muraoka
  • Patent number: 9343193
    Abstract: An x-ray analysis apparatus for illuminating a sample spot with an x-ray beam. An x-ray tube is provided having a source spot from which a diverging x-ray beam is produced having a characteristic first energy, and bremsstrahlung energy; a first x-ray optic receives the diverging x-ray beam and directs the beam toward the sample spot, while monochromating the beam; and a second x-ray optic receives the diverging x-ray beam and directs the beam toward the sample spot, while monochromating the beam to a second energy. The first x-ray optic may monochromate characteristic energy from the source spot, and the second x-ray optic may monochromate bremsstrahlung energy from the source spot. The x-ray optics may be curved diffracting optics, for receiving the diverging x-ray beam from the x-ray tube and focusing the beam at the sample spot. Detection is also provided to detect and measure various toxins in, e.g., manufactured products including toys and electronics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2016
    Assignee: X-RAY OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC
    Inventors: Zewu Chen, David M. Gibson, Walter M. Gibson, Adam Bailey, R. Scott Semken, Kai Xin, John H. Burdett, Jr.
  • Patent number: 9335282
    Abstract: Provided is an X-ray topography apparatus capable of separating a desired characteristic X-ray which enters a sample from an X-ray which is radiated from an X-ray source, and increasing an irradiation region of the desired characteristic X-ray. The X-ray topography apparatus includes: the X-ray source for radiating the X-ray from a fine focal point, the X-ray containing a predetermined characteristic X-ray; an optical system including a multilayer mirror with a graded multilayer spacing which corresponds to the predetermined characteristic X-ray, the optical system being configured to cause the X-ray reflected on the multilayer mirror to enter the sample; and an X-ray detector for detecting a diffracted X-ray. The multilayer mirror includes a curved reflective surface having a parabolic cross section, and the fine focal point of the X-ray source is provided onto a focal point of the curved reflective surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2016
    Assignee: RIGAKU CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kazuhiko Omote, Yoshinori Ueji, Ryuji Matsuo, Tetsuo Kikuchi
  • Patent number: 9285515
    Abstract: An imaging optical system has a plurality of mirrors. These image an object field in an object plane into an image field in an image plane. In the imaging optical system, the ratio of a maximum angle of incidence of imaging light) on reflection surfaces of the mirrors and an image-side numerical aperture of the imaging optical system is less than 33.8°. This can result in an imaging optical system which offers good conditions for a reflective coating of the mirror, with which a low reflection loss can be achieved for imaging light when passing through the imaging optical system, in particular even at wavelengths in the EUV range of less than 10 nm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2016
    Assignee: Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH
    Inventors: Hans-Juergen Mann, Wilheim Ulrich, Stephan Muellender, Hartmut Enkisch
  • Patent number: 9285690
    Abstract: Embodiments of the invention relate to a mirror (30). The mirror includes a mirroring surface and a profiled coating layer (32a) having an outer surface, wherein one or more wedged elements are formed by the outer surface with respect to the mirroring surface, and wherein the one or more wedged elements having a wedge angle (ø) in a range of approximately 10-200 mrad. The profiled coating layer may have a curved outer surface. The profiled coating layer may be formed from at least one of the following materials: Be, B, C, P, K, Ca, Sc, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ru, Nb, Mo, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Pa and U.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2016
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Vadim Yevgenyevich Banine, Leonid Aizikovitch Sjmaenok, Andrei Mikhailovich Yakunin
  • Patent number: 9269471
    Abstract: An X-ray differential phase-contrast imaging system has three circular gratings. The circular gratings are aligned with the optical axis of the radiation beam and a phase stepping is performed along the optical axis with the focal spot, the phase grating and/or the absorber grating. The signal measured is the phase-gradient in radial direction away from the optical axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2016
    Assignee: KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS N.V.
    Inventors: Ewald Roessl, Thomas Koehler, Gerhard Martens
  • Patent number: 9089697
    Abstract: The present invention provides an X-ray needle module for local radiation therapy containing: an X-ray generating part supplied with external electric power; and an X-ray needle forming part which collects the X-rays generated by the X-ray generating part and extracts the collected X-rays into high-intensity short-wavelength parallel X-rays so as to form an X-ray needle. The X-ray needle forming part includes a housing with an entrance hole at one surface through which the X-rays generated by the X-ray generating part enter and an exit hole at another surface through which the X-ray needle exits, the X-ray needle, provided in the housing, which collects the X-rays generated by the X-ray generating part and forms the X-ray needle of the high-intensity short-wavelength parallel X-rays and a position controller, provided at a leading end of the X-ray mirror.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2015
    Assignee: Industry Foundation of Chonnam National University
    Inventor: In Su Jeon
  • Patent number: 9080947
    Abstract: [Object] The present invention provides an X-ray irradiation device capable of adjusting the energy of X-rays in a wide range, and an analysis device equipped with the X-ray irradiation device. [Solving Means] An X-ray irradiation device according to an embodiment of the present invention focuses X-rays emitted from an X-ray generation mechanism to a predetermined focal position by a focusing mechanism. The X-ray generation mechanism has a structure which generates a plurality of X-rays having different wavelengths. The focusing mechanism has a structure in which the plurality of X-rays are focused to the same focal position by focusing elements having diffraction characteristics suitable for the wavelengths of the respective X-rays generated by the X-ray generation mechanism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2015
    Assignees: National Institute for Materials Science, Ulvac-PHI, Inc.
    Inventors: Hiromichi Yamazui, Keisuke Kobayashi, Hideo Iwai, Masaaki Kobata
  • Patent number: 9082522
    Abstract: A multilayer Laue Lens includes a compensation layer formed in between a first multilayer section and a second multilayer section. Each of the first and second multilayer sections includes a plurality of alternating layers made of a pair of different materials. Also, the thickness of layers of the first multilayer section is monotonically increased so that a layer adjacent the substrate has a minimum thickness, and the thickness of layers of the second multilayer section is monotonically decreased so that a layer adjacent the compensation layer has a maximum thickness. In particular, the compensation layer of the multilayer Laue lens has an in-plane thickness gradient laterally offset by 90° as compared to other layers in the first and second multilayer sections, thereby eliminating the strict requirement of the placement error.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2015
    Assignee: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC
    Inventors: Raymond P. Conley, Chian Qian Liu, Albert T. Macrander, Hanfei Yan, Jorg Maser, Hyon Chol Kang, Gregory Brian Stephenson
  • Patent number: 9046780
    Abstract: A multilayer mirror constructed to reflect radiation having a wavelength in the range of 6.4 nm to 7.2 nm. The multilayer mirror has alternating layers, including a first layer and a second layer. The first and second layers are selected from the group consisting of: U, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B4C layers; Th, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B4C layers; La, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B9C layers; La, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B4C layers; U, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B9C layers; Th, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B9C layers; La, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B layers; U, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B layers; C, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B layers; Th, or a compound or nitride thereof, and B layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2015
    Assignee: ASML NETHERLANDS B.V.
    Inventor: Andrei Mikhailovich Yakunin
  • Patent number: 9020098
    Abstract: A radiation imaging apparatus according to the present invention includes a radiation source, a reflective structure where at least three reflective substrates are arranged with an interval and radiations being incident into a plurality of passages whose both sides are put between the reflective substrate are reflected and parallelized by the reflective substrate at both sides of the passage to be emitted from the passage, a radiation detector, and an image construction unit that constructs an image of an object based on an intensity of the radiation which is emitted from each of the passages, transmits the object and is detected by the radiation detector. When one edge of the reflective structure is an inlet of the radiation and the other edge is an outlet of the radiation, a pitch of the reflective substrates at the outlet is larger than a pitch at the inlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takeo Tsukamoto, Ichiro Nomura, Mitsuaki Amemiya, Akira Miyake, Osamu Tsujii
  • Patent number: 9008271
    Abstract: An X-ray system is arranged for providing X-ray exposure to a target volume. The aforesaid X-ray system comprises an X-ray source and at least one focusing lens. The provided exposure is distributed over a volume of the target in a substantially uniform manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Convergent R.N.R. Ltd
    Inventors: Zeev Burshtein, Aharon Bar-David, Zeev Harel
  • Patent number: 9008272
    Abstract: A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: UChicago Argonne, LLC
    Inventors: Deming Shu, Yuri Shvydko, Stanislav A. Stoupin, Ruben Khachatryan, Kurt A. Goetze, Timothy Roberts
  • Patent number: 9001968
    Abstract: A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K? emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K? x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-? emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignees: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, University of California, GSI
    Inventors: Nathan Kugland, Tilo Doeppner, Siegfried Glenzer, Carmen Constantin, Chris Niemann, Paul Neumayer
  • Patent number: 8971488
    Abstract: Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using a multi-beam imaging system from an x-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution are disclosed. According to one aspect, a method can include generating a first X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution. Further, the method can include positioning a plurality of monochromator crystals in a predetermined position to directly intercept the first X-ray beam such that a plurality of second X-ray beams having predetermined energy levels are produced. Further, an object can be positioned in the path of the second X-ray beams for transmission of the second X-ray beams through the object and emission from the object as transmitted X-ray beams. The transmitted X-ray beams can each be directed at an angle of incidence upon one or more crystal analyzers. Further, an image of the object can be detected from the beams diffracted from the analyzer crystals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignees: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NextRay, Inc., Brookhaven Science Associates
    Inventors: Christopher A. Parham, Zhong Zhong, Etta Pisano, Dean M. Connor, Jr.
  • Patent number: 8848870
    Abstract: An X-ray optical configuration for irradiation of a sample (1) with an X-ray beam having a line-shaped cross-section, wherein the configuration contains an X-ray source (2) and a beam-conditioning X-ray optics, is characterized in that the X-ray source (2) comprises a brilliant point source (4) and the X-ray optics comprises an X-ray optical element (3) which conditions X-ray light emitted by the point source in such a fashion that the X-ray beam is rendered parallel in one direction perpendicular to the beam propagation direction and remains divergent in a direction which is perpendicular thereto and also to the beam propagation direction. An X-ray optical element of this type enables use of both point-shaped and line-shaped beam geometries without complicated and time-consuming conversion work.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: Bruker AXS GmbH
    Inventors: Lutz Bruegemann, Carsten Michaelsen, Keisuke Saito
  • Patent number: 8831175
    Abstract: According to some aspects, a hybrid optic is provided. The hybrid optic comprises a capillary optic for receiving x-rays from an x-ray source at an entrance portion of the capillary optic and for providing x-rays at an exit portion of the capillary optic, and a grazing incidence multi-shell optic (GIMSO) coupled, at an entrance portion of the GIMSO, to the exit portion of the capillary optic to receive x-rays emerging from the exit portion of the capillary optic, the GIMSO including an exit portion for providing x-rays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Inventors: Eric H. Silver, Gerald Austin, David Caldwell, Ting Lin
  • Patent number: 8824631
    Abstract: Provided is a technique for X-ray reflection, such as an X-ray reflecting mirror, capable of achieving a high degree of smoothness of a reflecting surface, high focusing (reflecting) performance, stability in a curved surface shape, and a reduction in overall weight. A silicon plate (silicon wafer) is subjected to thermal plastic deformation to form an X-ray reflecting mirror having a reflecting surface with a stable curved surface shape. The silicon wafer can be deformed to any shape by applying a pressure thereto in a hydrogen atmosphere at a high temperature of about 1300° C. The silicon plate may be simultaneously subjected to hydrogen annealing to further reduce roughness of a silicon surface to thereby provide enhanced reflectance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignees: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tokyo Manufacturing University
    Inventors: Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Manabu Ishida, Yuichiro Ezoe, Kazuo Nakajima
  • Patent number: 8787525
    Abstract: An X-ray monochromator including: a substrate having a concave surface; and an inorganic oxide film formed on the concave surface and having a plurality of pores, in which the plurality of pores of the inorganic oxide film being laid periodically in a stacked manner in the normal directions of the concave surface, and in which the plurality of pores being cylindrical is provided. The X-ray monochromator shows an excellent X-ray spectroscopic performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Atsushi Komoto, Hirokatsu Miyata, Wataru Kubo
  • Patent number: 8781071
    Abstract: A method and device for spectrometry analysis and for extracting a primary diffuse spectrum from a diffusion spectrum of diffuse radiation, according to a diffusion angle, coming from a material exposed to incident radiation through a surface, that includes the application of a spectral response function organized in the form of a matrix (M), known as a correlation matrix, of which each value aij corresponds with a number of detected photons, with energy Ei, constituting the multiple diffuse radiation, when a photon is detected, with energy Ej, of the primary diffuse radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2014
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
    Inventors: Joachim Tabary, Jean Rinkel
  • Patent number: 8767918
    Abstract: A X-ray scattering measurement device and measurement method can measure, with high resolution, the intensity of X-rays which have undergone small-angle scattering and diffraction with reflection geometry and can easily and accurately measure a microstructure on the surface of a sample. The X-ray scattering measurement device is suitable for microstructural measurement on the surface of a sample includes an X-ray source that generates an X-ray; a first mirror and a second mirror that continuously reflect the generated X-ray; a sample stage that supports the sample; and a two-dimensional detector that detects the X-ray scattered on the surface of the sample. The first mirror focuses the generated X-ray onto the two-dimensional detector within a plane parallel to the surface of the sample, and the second mirror focuses the X-ray reflected by the first mirror onto the surface of the sample within a plane perpendicular to the surface of the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2014
    Assignee: Rigaku Corporation
    Inventors: Kazuhiko Omote, Boris Verman, Licai Jiang
  • Patent number: 8737565
    Abstract: A compound zone plate comprising a first zone plate frame including a first zone plate, a second zone plate frame including a second zone plate, and a base frame to which the first zone plate frame and the second zone plate frame are bonded. In examples, two more zone plates are added to make a four element optic. In the assembly process, the microbeads are used to ensure the parallelism, dial in the distance precisely between the zone plates by selecting the microbead size, possibly in response to the width of the frames, and ensure low friction lateral movement enabling nanometer precision alignment of the zone plates with respect to each other prior to being fixed by the adhesive. That is, when the frames are pressed together to ensure parallelism, it is still possible to align them to each other since the microbead layer facilitates the inplane movement of the alignment process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2014
    Assignee: Carl Zeiss X-Ray Microscopy, Inc.
    Inventors: Alan Francis Lyon, Michael Feser, Wenbing Yun, Sharon Chen
  • Patent number: 8724776
    Abstract: An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2014
    Assignee: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC
    Inventors: Edwin G. Haas, Christopher Stelmach, Zhong Zhong
  • Patent number: 8649483
    Abstract: A method is described for producing a grating, in particular an absorption grating, having a grating constant of less than 100 ?m, by using a solution of superparamagnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters (CNCs), a solvent liquid and a photocurable resin, with the following steps: —alignment of the CNCs in the solution by an external magnetic field, —exposure of the solution, so that the resin is cured and grating structures of an intended grating constant are formed, and —removal of the magnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Martin Hoheisel
  • Patent number: 8594277
    Abstract: A collector optical system for EUV and X-ray applications is disclosed, wherein the system includes a plurality of mirrors arranged in a nested configuration that is symmetric about an optical axis. The mirrors have first and second reflective surfaces that provide successive grazing incidence reflections of radiation from a radiation source. The first and second reflective surfaces have a corrective shape that compensates for high spatial frequency variations in the far field intensity distribution of the radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Media Lario S.R.L.
    Inventors: Fabio Zocchi, Pietro Binda, Enrico Benedetti
  • Publication number: 20130272501
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an X-ray imaging apparatus including an X-ray source, a grating that divides diverging X-rays irradiated from the X-ray source, and a detector that detects X-rays which are divided by the grating and pass through a sample. The grating includes a plurality of transparent objects which pass the diverging X-rays and a plurality of opaque objects that shield the diverging X-rays. A focused position at which a plurality of extended lines intersect each other and the X-ray source are arranged in different position. The extended lines are formed by extending center lines which connect a center of the X-ray source side of each of the plurality of opaque objects facing the X-ray source with a center of the detector side of each of the plurality of opaque objects facing the detector.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 21, 2011
    Publication date: October 17, 2013
    Applicant: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Kimiaki Yamaguchi, Toru Den
  • Patent number: 8537970
    Abstract: For a quasi-monochromatic x-ray radiation with high radiation intensity, an x-ray radiator generates quasi-monochromatic x-ray radiation to expose a subject from a point-shaped radiation source that emits a polychromatic x-ray radiation, and having a diffraction device to diffract the polychromatic x-ray radiation. The diffraction device has a super-mirror made of crystalline material with a flat surface. In the super-mirror, the crystalline material has at least one (in particular continuous) variation of the lattice plane spacing of the crystal lattice. The radiation source and the diffraction device are arranged such that quasi-monochromatic x-ray radiation is generated from the polychromatic x-ray radiation by partial reflection at the super-mirror.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 17, 2013
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Philipp Bernhardt
  • Patent number: 8526572
    Abstract: The disclosure relates to an amplifying optical cavity of the Fabry-Perot type that can be used in combination with a high-rate picosecond pumped laser for generating monochromatic X-rays. The disclosure relates to an amplifying optical cavity of the Fabry-Perot type that can be used for obtaining a strongly focused pumped laser beam having a high stability at the average power PMOY.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2013
    Assignee: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique—CNRS
    Inventors: Fabian Zomer, Richard Cizeron
  • Patent number: 8457281
    Abstract: A method for producing a multilayer coating (17) for reflecting radiation in the soft X-ray or EUV wavelength range on an optical element (8, 9) operated at an operating temperature (TOP) of 30° C. or more, including: determining an optical design for the multilayer coating (17) which defines an optical desired layer thickness (nOP dOP) of the layers (17.1, 17.2) of the multilayer coating (17) at the operating temperature (TOP), and applying the layers (17.1, 17.2) of the multilayer coating (17) with an optical actual layer thickness (nB dB) chosen such that a layer thickness change(nOP dOP?nB dB) caused by thermal expansion of the layers (17.1, 17.2) between the coating temperature (TB) and the operating temperature (TOP) is compensated for. Also provided are an associated optical element (8, 9) and a projection exposure apparatus having at least one such optical element (8, 9).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2013
    Assignee: Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH
    Inventors: Hartmut Enkisch, Stephan Muellender, Martin Endres
  • Publication number: 20130108022
    Abstract: A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K? emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K? x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-? emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 26, 2012
    Publication date: May 2, 2013
    Applicant: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC
    Inventor: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC
  • Patent number: 8422633
    Abstract: The invention refers to an X-ray beam device for X-ray analytical applications, comprising an X-ray source designed such as to emit a divergent beam of X-rays; and an optical assembly designed such as to focus said beam onto a focal spot, wherein said optical assembly comprises a first reflecting optical element, a monochromator device and a second reflecting optical element sequentially arranged between said source and said focal spot, wherein said first optical element is designed such as to collimate said beam in two dimensions towards said monochromator device, and wherein said second optical element is designed such as to focus the beam coming from said monochromator device in two dimensions onto said focal spot.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2013
    Assignee: Xenocs S.A.
    Inventors: Blandine Lantz, Peter Hoghoj
  • Patent number: 8416921
    Abstract: An X-ray convergence element and an X-ray irradiation device including the X-ray convergence element are provided. The X-ray convergence element can extend a working distance from an exit-side opening end thereof to a specimen, and can perform analysis of the specimen with rough surface, a fluorescent X-ray analysis, and a X-ray diffraction analysis, regardless of a size of the specimen. An X-ray blocking member 23 is provided with three supporting members 233 for supporting the X-ray blocking member 23, which extend from an annular member 232 having approximately the same diameter as a diameter of an entrance-side opening end (outer diameter of a capillary 20) toward the center of the X-ray blocking member 23 to fix the annular member 232 to the capillary 20. The annular member 232, the supporting members 233, and the X-ray blocking member 23 are integrally formed of a metal that shields X-rays, such as tantalum, tungsten, or molybdenum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2013
    Assignees: Horiba, Ltd., National Institute for Materials Science
    Inventors: Hiromoto Nakazawa, Hideki Yoshikawa, Aurel-Mihai Vlaicu, Kenichi Obori, Shintaro Komatani, Sumito Ohzawa
  • Patent number: 8406379
    Abstract: In one embodiment of the present invention, a curvature distribution crystal lens of the present invention is obtained via press-molding. In the case of a Ge single crystal plate, a temperature for the press-molding is in a range 1° C. to 120° C. lower than a melting point. In the case of a Si single crystal plate, a temperature for the press-molding is in a range 1° C. to 200° C. lower than a melting point. The curvature distribution crystal lens has a crystal lattice plane forming a 1D cylindrically curved surface or a 1D logarithmically curved surface whose valley is in a direction perpendicular to a direction having a maximum curvature, the direction having the maximum curvature being within 30° from a [001] or [1-10] direction in a (110) plane. As a result, it is possible to make an integrated reflection intensity uniform and to make a half-value width uniform in a wide range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignees: Kyoto University, Tohoku University
    Inventors: Hiroshi Okuda, Kazuo Nakajima, Kozo Fujiwara
  • Patent number: 8357894
    Abstract: An improved microcalorimeter-type energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer provides sufficient energy resolution and throughput for practical high spatial resolution x-ray mapping of a sample at low electron beam energies. When used with a dual beam system that provides the capability to etch a layer from the sample, the system can be used for three-dimensional x-ray mapping. A preferred system uses an x-ray optic having a wide-angle opening to increase the fraction of x-rays leaving the sample that impinge on the detector and multiple detectors to avoid pulse pile up.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2013
    Assignee: FEI Company
    Inventors: Milos Toth, Michael R. Scheinfein, Eric Silver, David Narum
  • Publication number: 20120294426
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for the delivery of a beam of X-rays for analysis of a sample (50), comprising: a source block (100) comprising X-ray emission means; an optical block (200) placed downstream of the source block (100), said optical block (200) comprising an optical monochromator component (210) having a reflecting surface (212) provided for conditioning X-rays emitted by the source block (100) according to unidimensional or bidimensional optical effect; and definition means (300) of X-rays comprising: an anti-diffusing member (310) for spatially delimiting X-rays conditioned by the optical monochromator component (210), placed downstream of the optical monochromator component (210) and comprising one or more plates (311) having portions (313) arranged to form a delimiting orifice (312), said portions (313) being coated with a monocrystalline material limiting the scattering of X-rays; a cut-off member (320) of X-rays emitted by the source block (100), comprising X-ray absorption means arr
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 18, 2011
    Publication date: November 22, 2012
    Applicant: XENOCS
    Inventors: Pierre Panine, Peter Hoghoj
  • Patent number: 8315358
    Abstract: Strain matching of crystals and horizontally-spaced monochromator and analyzer crystal arrays in diffraction enhanced imaging systems and related methods are disclosed. A DEI system, including strain matched crystals can comprise an X-ray source configured to generate a first X-ray beam. A first monochromator crystal can be positioned to intercept the first X-ray beam for producing a second X-ray beam. A second monochromator crystal can be positioned to intercept the second X-ray beam to produce a third X-ray beam for transmission through an object. The second monochromator crystal has a thickness selected such that a mechanical strain on a side of the first monochromator crystal is the same as a mechanical strain on the second monochromator crystal. An analyzer crystal has a thickness selected such that a mechanical strain on a side of the first monochromator crystal is the same as a mechanical strain on the analyzer crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Nextray, Inc.
    Inventors: Dean Connor, Zhong Zhong, Christopher Parham, Etta Pisano
  • Patent number: 8311184
    Abstract: An X-ray imaging system that produces one or more fan-shaped beams is described. The system includes a target for emitting X rays that includes at least one target focal spot, and one or more graded multilayer optic devices in optical communication with the target. The optics transmits at least a portion of the source X rays to produce the one or more fan-shaped beams. The graded multilayer optic devices include at least a first graded multilayer section for redirecting and transmitting X rays through total internal reflection. The graded multilayer section includes a high-index layer of material having a first complex refractive index n1, a low-index layer of material having a second complex refractive index n2, and a grading zone disposed between the high-index and low-index layers of material. The grading zone includes a grading layer having a third complex refractive index n3 such that Re(n1)>Re(n2)>Re(n3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2012
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Susanne Madeline Lee, Peter Michael Edic, Forrest Frank Hopkins