METHOD TO ENHANCE OSTEOBLAST FUNCTIONALITY AND MEASURE ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES FOR A MEDICAL IMPLANT
A method to enhance osteoblast functionality of a medical implant. The method may include obtaining the medical implant and treating a surface of the medical implant to modify the surface characteristics causing increase functionality of adjacent positioned osteoblasts. A method of increasing cellular activity of a medical implant is also disclosed. A medical device having enhanced cytocompatibility capabilities includes a metallic substrate with an outer surface. Attached to the outer surface is a composition of nanosized structures. A biosensor for use with a medical device, includes an electrode that is attached to an outer surface of the medical device. The biosensor measures electrochemical changes adjacent to the medical implant. Further, a method of manufacturing a medical implant with a biosensor for use in vivo and a method of integrating a biosensor with a medical implant for use in monitoring conductivity and electrochemical changes adjacent to the medical implant are disclosed.
Latest NANOVIS, LLC. Patents:
This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 60/949,386 and 60/949,373, both filed Jul. 12, 2007, which are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.TECHNICAL FIELD
This invention relates, in general, to a method to enhance osteoblast functionality and electrochemical properties of a substrate material used in the construction of medical implants, and in particular, to a process for treating the surface of a medical implant to increase osteoblast functionality and enhance its electrochemical properties.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Bone matrices are generally ninety percent (90%) by weight nanostructured fibrillar type-I collagen and ten percent (10%) by weight nanostructured hydroxyapatite crystals. Osteoblasts form the nanostructured organic matrix of bone and produce alkaline phosphatase as well as other proteins which play critical roles in the mineralization process. Undoubtedly, medical implants require the functions of osteoblasts to create new bone on their surfaces; the lack of sufficient new bone growth on current materials have contributed in part to current average hip implant lifetimes of less than fifteen (15) years. In fact, although due to numerous psychological and physical reasons, a recent University of Maryland Medical School (USA) study reported that up to twenty-nine percent (29%) of patients receiving a hip implant die in the following revision surgery. Such data clearly indicate that much is needed to improve the performance of current bone implants.
Surprisingly, no gold standard material exists for orthopedic applications; commercially pure titanium (Ti), cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCrMo), and a titanium alloy (Ti6A14V) are common variants each with varying degrees of success towards promoting new bone growth. Ti is well-known for its high strength-to-weight ratio, low toxicity, and consequently is the most widely utilized material in orthopedic and maxillofacial replacements. Not only are the mechanical properties of Ti (such as stiffness, high load resistance, fatigue resistance and ductility) sufficient for physiological loading, but its biocompatibility properties are also attractive for orthopedic applications. Important in the design of successful implants is the ability of such materials to control protein adsorption and consequently osteoblast adhesion after they are implanted. The degree to which proteins absorb on implant surfaces depends on biomaterial properties, such as their chemistry, charge, wettability, and topography. In the case of surface chemistry, oxidized layers of titanium oxide (TiO2) are formed on Ti surfaces simply through their exposure to air and/or water. After implantation, oxidized Ti surfaces bind with water, forming —O− and —OH− sites which possess a weak negative charge at physiological pH. Therefore, this oxidized layer provides a kinetic barrier that prevents Ti from corroding and provides bone implant materials that promote calcium phosphate crystal, protein, and cellular bonding.
Ti can be improved for orthopedic applications. Resulting changes in topography from Ti oxidation can be modified in order to increase biologically inspired nanometer surface roughness for better protein adsorption, osteoblast attachment, and eventual osseointegration. Recent research has shown nanometer surfaces of anodized Ti may be created to enhance osteoblast adhesion, wherein anodized Ti creates nanotube-like pores, which, have been shown to possess higher surface energy and improved wettability compared to unanodized Ti.
Although improving bone formation appears to be achievable, the clinical diagnosis of new bone growth or identifying other tissue formation surrounding implants (such as through X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, or bone scans) remains problematic, sometimes significantly increasing patient hospital stay and decreasing the ability to quickly prescribe a change in action if new bone growth is not occurring surrounding the implant. Specifically, the current state of the art for determining whether any tissue in growth has occurred at the implant-tissue interface is for the clinician to perform a physical examination, for example, palpation, or laboratory testing might be completed before imaging techniques are used to inform a clinician about a patient's health. Although advanced imaging techniques, such as bone scans, computer tomography scans, and radiographs (X-rays) are important in medical diagnosis, each has its own limitations and difficulties. A bone scan is used to identify areas of abnormal active bone formation, such as arthritis, infection, or bone cancer. However, bone scans require an injection of a radioactive substance (e.g., technetium) and a prolonged delay for absorbance before the scan can be performed. A computer tomography combines X-rays with computer technology to produce a two dimensional cross-sectional image of a body on the computer screen. Although this technique produces more detail that an X-ray in some cases (e.g., severe trauma to the chest, abdomen, pelvis or spinal cord), a dye (e.g. barium sulfate) must be injected in order to improve the clarity of the image. This often causes pain to the patient.
Another evaluation technique, called electromyography, has also been used to analyze/diagnose nerve functions inside body conditions. Thin electrodes are placed in soft tissues to help analyze and record electrical activity in the muscles. However, this electrode technique leads to pain and discomfort for the patient. When these needles are removed, soreness and bruising can occur. In contrast, the disclosed inventive electrochemical biosensors on the implant itself will be able to provide in situ medical diagnostics and will to likely determine new bone growth surrounding the implant.
Thus, a longstanding need has existed for development of an electrochemical biosensor that is capable of providing specific quantitative or semi-quantitative information using a biological recognition element retained in direct spatial contact with an electrochemical transduction element. The electrochemical biosensor could translate information from the biochemical domain into an electrical output signal to be detected, leading to enhanced understanding of biological functions, including osseointegration or the identification of the type of tissue formation. A further need existed in developing a method of fully integrating a biosensor with a medical implant, or more specifically an orthopaedic implant to allow a clinician to monitor implant-tissue interfaces.
Accordingly, in view of these longstanding deficiencies of current construct materials for medical devices and the corresponding lack of consistent osteoblast activity relative to the surface of a medical implant in vivo as well as the ability to measure and identify adjacent tissue formation, it would be desirable to develop a process by which materials from which medical devices are fabricated are treated resulting in enhanced cellular functionality, specifically osteoblast proliferation in vivo, in conjunction with creating a mechanism or sensor device for determining and monitoring in situ new bone growth or other tissue formation surrounding an implanted medical implant.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Enhancement in the functionality of materials that are used to fabricate medical devices is desirable. The present invention provides a novel and non-obvious approach to improving the cytocompatibility properties of titanium metal that is to be used in fabricating a medical implant. The present invention provides in one aspect, a method of enhancing and increasing osteoblast functionality of a medical device by obtaining a medical implant and treating a surface of the medical implant to modify the surface characteristics resulting in increased functionality of adjacent osteoblasts.
The present invention provides in another aspect, a method of increasing cellular activity for a medical implant by obtaining a medical implant and processing the surface of the medical implant to change the surface topography causing increased cellular mineral deposition on the surface by cells that are positioned adjacent to the medical implant surface.
The present invention provides in yet another aspect, a medical implant that has enhanced cytocompatibility that includes a metallic substrate with an outer surface that includes a myriad of attached nanosized structures.
The present invention provides in another aspect, a biosensor that is used with a medical implant. The biosensor has an electrode that is attached to the medical implant's outer surface allowing the biosensor to detect electrochemical changes to for identify the presence and type of adjacent tissue. It would be contemplated that such types of tissue including, but are not limited to, bone, soft, connective, including collagen, tendon, cartilage and other biological precursors of these tissue types.
The present invention provides in yet another aspect, a method of manufacturing a medical implant with a biosensor for use in vivo to monitor electrochemical changes along the interface between living tissue and a medical implant. The method may include obtaining the medical implant and treating the surface of the medical implant to modify the surface characteristics, thus causing the formation of the attached biosensor.
The present invention provides in a further aspect, a method of integrating a biosensor with the medical implant. The method may include the steps of obtaining the medical implant, applying a treatment process to the outer surface of the medical implant, producing a plurality of anodized nanotubular structures on the outer surface with each of the nanotubular structures having a lumen, growing carbon nanotubes within the lumens of the plurality of anodized nanotubular structures. The biosensor being constructed of the plurality of nanotubular structures in combination with the carbon nanotubes.
Further, additional features and advantages are realized through the techniques of the present invention. Other embodiments and aspects of the invention are described in detail herein and are considered a part of the claimed invention.
The subject matter which is regarded as the invention is particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed in the claims at the conclusion of the specification. The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the invention are apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
The present invention is based in part on the surprising discovery that medical implants that include a surface composed of anodized nanotubular titanium have been shown to have increased osteoblast activity around that medical implant following implantation. Further enhancement of such cytocompatibility is seen when the multi-walled carbon nanotubes are grown on the anodized nanotubular titanium surface. Thus, a process to grow multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the surface of a titanium medical implant that includes a surface of anodized nanotubular structures will result in increased integration with the implant of bone or other types of surrounding tissue including, but are not limited to, soft, connective, including collagen, tendon, cartilage and other biological precursors of these tissue types, that will likely result in longer term implant success. It should be noted that it would be well understood by one skilled in the art that other substrate materials may be used and undergo the subject method for surface topography change and resultant cellular enhancement, with these materials including, but are not being limited to other titanium alloys, cobalt chromium alloys, stainless steel alloys, composites, and polymers.
Accordingly, as disclosed herein, the present invention provides a method for treating a surface of an implant to modify the surface characteristics by growing multi-walled nanotubes, thereby increasing the activity and functionality of adjacent osteoblasts or other cells. The present invention also would include a medical implant on which such process was performed, thus enhancing the cytocompatibility of the medical implant post-implantation.
Also, as disclosed herein, the present invention is also based in part on the unexpected result that the changed topography of the implant surface creates an integral biosensor on said surface of the medical implant, wherein the conductivity between the biosensor and the surrounding tissue may be measured and allow for tissue identification. The present invention yet further provides for a medical implant to include a self-contained biosensor that is integrally connected to the implant surface and in close approximate to the adjacent/surrounding biological tissue following implantation.
The features and other details of the invention will now be more particularly described with references to the accompanying drawings, experimentation results and claims. Certain terms are defined throughout the specification. Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention pertains. In some cases, terms with commonly understood meanings are defined herein for clarity and/or for ready reference, and the inclusion of such definitions herein should not necessarily be construed to represent a substantial difference over the definition of the term as generally understood in the art. Furthermore, as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to “a multi-walled carbon nanotube” includes one or more of such multi-walled carbon nanotubes, as would be known to those skilled in the art.
Discussed below is the novel evaluation undertaken by the inventors that more fully describes the present invention of a method for treating a surface of a titanium medical implant that causes a changed topography and results in enhanced or increased osteoblast functionality and activity, as well as another aspect of the invention, a medical implant that includes an outer surface that has integrally connected anodized nanotubular titanium structures with multi-walled carbon nanotubes growing from within said nanotubular structures.Materials and Methods 1. Anodization
In order to create nanotubes on titanium (hereinafter “Ti”) for subsequent carbon nanotube tube (hereinafter “CNT”) growth, a novel anodization technique was adapted. Briefly, 99.2% commercially pure Ti sheets (Alfa Aesar) were cut into 1×1 cm2 squares and cleaned with acetone, 70% ethanol, and deionized H2O. Then, these samples were etched for 10 seconds with a solution of 1.5% by weight nitric acid and 0.5% by weight hydrofluoric acid to remove the oxidized layer on Ti surfaces. Cleaned Ti samples were used as an anode, while a high purity platinum sheet (Alfa Aesar) served as a cathode. Both were immersed in an electrolyte solution consisting of 1.5% by weight diluted hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker. The surface of the etched Ti was placed next to the platinum sheet at a distance of around 1 cm. As shown in
A chemical vapor deposition (hereinafter “CVD”) system (Applied Science & Technology Inc.) was used to grow multi-walled CNTs out of anodized Ti nanotubes. First, some of the anodized nanotubular samples were dipped into a 5M cobaltous nitrate solution (Allied Chemical), diluted with methanol to 5 wt %, for 5 minutes to serve as a catalyst for CNT growth. Next, the samples were rinsed with distilled water and dried with compressed air. As depicted in
All samples were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM; LEO 1530VP FE-4800).3. Cell Culture and Cellular Assays
In vitro osteoblast cytocompatibility assays were determined on four (4) types of samples, including commercially pure Ti, anodized nanotubular Ti, CNTs grown from anodized nanotubular Ti, and carbon nanopaper (buckypaper; NanoLab Inc.). For the CNTs grown from anodized Ti, all samples used in cell assays employed the cobaltous nitrate catalyst. Osteoblast (CRL-11372; American Type Culture Collection) adhesion and differentiation from non-calcium to calcium depositing cells were determined on each substrate. First, all substrates were sterilized by ultraviolet (hereinafter “UV”) light exposure for four (4) hours on each side. Substrates were then immediately rinsed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS; 8 g NaCl, 0.2 g KCl, 1.5 g Na2PO4, and 0.2 g KH2PO4 in 1000 ml DI water adjusted to a pH of 7.4; Sigma-Aldrich) three times and placed in 12 well plates. For adhesion assays, 3,500 osteoblasts/cm2 were seeded in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Hyclone), and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (P/S; Hyclone) onto the substrates under standard incubator conditions (a humidified, 5% CO2, and 95% air environment at 37° C.) for four (4) hours. At the end of the prescribed time period, cells were then fixed, stained, counted, and visualized by both scanning electron (Leo 1530VP FE-4800) and fluorescence (Lieca) microscopy according to standard techniques.
For osteoblast differentiation assays, 40,000 cells/cm2 were seeded onto the substrates of interest and were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 1% P/S, 50 nM β-glycerophosphate (Sigma), and 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid (Sigma) under standard incubator conditions for seven (7), fourteen (14), and twenty-one (21) days. At the end of the prescribed time period, an alkaline/acid phosphatase assay kit (Upstate) was used to determine the concentration of alkaline phosphatase in cell lysates. Cell lysates were prepared by first rinsing all samples with Tris-buffered saline (TBS; 42 mM Tris-HCl, 8 mM Tris Base and 0.15 M NaCl; pH of 7.4; Sigma-Aldrich) three times and then subjecting the cells to three freeze-thaw cycles using distilled water. A calcium quantification kit (Sigma) was also used to determine the amount of calcium deposited by osteoblasts cultured on each substrate. An acidic supernatant solution for this assay was prepared by incubating all the samples with 0.6 N HCl (Sigma) overnight. The light absorbance was measured by a spectrophotometer (SpectoMAX; Molecular Devices) at 650 nm for alkaline phosphatase activity and 570 nm for calcium deposition.
All experiments were conducted in triplicate and were repeated at least three (3) times. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a student t-test was used to determine differences between means.Results 1. Material Surface Topography
As shown in
As summarized in
Results of the method confirmed previous work that demonstrated greater osteoblast functions (such as alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition) on anodized compared to unanodized Ti. Important to note is that anodization is only one of multiple ways to create biologically-inspired nanofeatures on Ti. Similarly, the results of the samples produced by the disclosed method confirmed those of other studies which have demonstrated greater osteoblast functions on carbon nanofibers (hereinafter “CNF”) and CNTs compared to currently implantable Ti. It is well known in the art that the novel cytocompatibility properties of CNFs/CNTs direct bone formation to match that of the natural anisotropic arrangement of collagen and hydroxyapatite in long bones of the body.
This evaluation surprisingly advanced the results observed separately on anodized nanotubular Ti and CNTs and provided direct evidence of increased osteoblast activity on CNTs grown from anodized Ti. Importantly, this evaluation provided evidence that while osteoblast adhesion was similar on all substrates tested, markers of osteoblast differentiation (specifically, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition) were significantly higher when osteoblasts were cultured on CNTs grown from anodized Ti. As mentioned, CNTs have also been used in several sensor applications.Conclusion
The results of the evaluation performed by the inventors and described herein provided the surprising evidence that osteoblasts synthesized more alkaline phosphatase and calcium on the surfaces of non-functionalized CNTs grown from anodized nanotubular Ti compared to anodized nanotubular Ti without CNTs and currently-used unanodized commercially pure Ti. Therefore, such materials can be useful for additional orthopedic and other medical applications, including those in which such nanostructures may serve as in situ biosensors monitoring and controlling new bone growth. The inventor's evaluation also demonstrates potential enhanced in vitro bone formation with protruding CNTs for orthopedic applications.
As discussed herein another objective of the present invention was to address the longstanding need that exists for developing an electrochemical biosensor that is capable of providing specific quantitative or semi-quantitative information using a biological recognition element retained in direct spatial contact with an electrochemical transduction element. The electrochemical biosensor would then translate information from the biochemical domain into an electrical output signal to be detected, leading to enhanced understanding of biological functions, including osseointegration or the identification of other tissue formation. A further need existed in developing a method of fully integrating a biosensor with a medical implant, or more specifically an orthopaedic implant to allow clinician monitoring of implant interfaces.
Accordingly, the present invention provides in another aspect, a self-contained biosensor that is configured to have contact with an implant surface and surrounding tissue following implantation into a patient and measures the conductivity between implant surface and the surrounding tissue, thus providing a means for identify the presence and type of adjacent tissue.
The present invention provides in yet another aspect, a method of manufacturing a biosensor for use in vivo to monitor changes along the interface between living tissue and an implant.
In yet another aspect, the invention provides for a method for integrating a biosensor with a medical implant for use in monitoring adjacent tissue changes and identifying said tissue following implantation.
Disclosed below is the further novel evaluation undertaken by the inventors that more fully describes the embodiments of the present invention of a method for treating a surface of a titanium medical implant that results in the formation of integral biosensors. In addition, the evaluation discloses a medical implant that includes integral biosensors that are capable of sensing the conductivity of surrounding tissue, including bone and other types of tissue.
In order to form a more robust interconnection, as has been described above, the inventors have anchored CNTs in the pores of anodized nanotubular Ti in this evaluation. Then, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (hereinafter “MWCNTs”) were grown, using CVD techniques, out of anodized Ti nanotubes (with diameters of 50-60 nm and depths of 200 nm) as a template. In electronic theory, when two different materials come in contact with each other, electron transfer will occur in an attempt to balance Fermi levels, causing the formation of a double layer of electrical charge at the interface. Herein, electron transfer between Ti-based electrodes and electrolyte solutions, which contained Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe) ions were mainly observed. However, the electron transfer between the interface of Ti-based electrodes and osteoblast cells in tissue culture, was also examined in this evaluation.Materials and Methods 1. Ti-based Electrodes
Commercially pure Ti (Timicro; Alfa Aesar), anodized Ti, and MWCNT-Ti were used as a working electrode with a geometric area of 1 mm2 and 1 cm2. The anodized Ti (Tinano) was prepared by anodization techniques. Briefly, 1 cm2 of Ti was etched with a solution of 1.5% by weight nitric acid and 0.5% by weight hydrofluoric acid (HF) for ten (10) seconds. A potential of twenty (20) volts was applied between a Ti and platinum (Pt; Alfa Aesar) sheet electrode for ten (10) minutes in the presence of 1.5% by weight HF in order to create uniform nanopores. Afterward Tinano were further modified by growing MWCNTs out of the nanopores via CVD. Deionized water was used to clean all electrodes before the electrochemical measurements.2. Osteoblast Culture and Calcium-Contained Electrolyte Solutions
Human osteoblasts (CRL-11372; ATCC; population number=5-12) were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM; Gibco) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Hyclone), 1% penicillin/streptomycin (P/S; Hyclone), 50 nM β-glycerophosphate (Sigma), and 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid (Sigma) for seven (7), fourteen (14), and twenty-one (21) days on commercially pure Ti with an initial cell density of 40,000 cells/cm2 under standard cell culture conditions (a humidified, 5% CO2, and 95% air environment at 37° C.). After each time period and three freeze-thaw cycles with distilled water to lyse the cells, the calcium-containing electrolyte solution was prepared by incubating Ti substrates after each culture period with 0.6 N HCl (Sigma) for 24 hours. A calcium quantification kit (Sigma) was used to determine the amount of calcium deposited by osteoblasts. The light absorbance of calcium in the supernatants was measured by a spectrophotometer (SpectraMAX 340PC384; Molecular Devices) at 570 nm. The chemical composition on the surfaces of the Ti substrates after osteoblast culture for twenty-one (21) days was also evaluated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS; Leo 1530VP FE-4800). Osteoblasts were cultured separately on another set of Ti and anodized Ti substrates for fourteen (14) days in order to test the electrochemical behavior of Timicro/Tinano substrates.3. Electrochemical Measurements
The cyclic voltammetry experiments were performed by using an Epsilon EC potentiostat and Digisim software (Bioanalytical System). Both MWCNT-Ti and Ti were used as the working electrodes in this study. The working electrode area was 1 mm2 and 1 cm2 which were demarcated by Teflon tape. A silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl; MW-2052; Bioanalytical System) and platinum (MW-1032; Bioanalytical System) wire were used as a reference and counter electrodes, respectively. Before the measurements, all electrodes were cleaned with deionized water. Three types of the electrodes were connected to the potentiostat and immersed in an electrolyte solution. Two kinds of electrolyte solutions were used in order to analyze and compare the electrolyzed oxidation states of MWCNT-Ti electrodes. The first aqueous electrolyte was a 10 mM K3Fe(CN)6 (potassium ferricyanide) solution with 1 M KNO3. To obtain real calcium deposited from osteoblasts, not only were calcium-contained supernatants used for calcium determination by light absorbance, but they were also used as the second electrolyte solution, which was calcium dissolved in 0.6 N HCl. Simply, conventional Ti (Timicro) was used as the substrates for cell culture, and then calcium deposited by osteoblasts was collected at the end of seven (7), fourteen (14), and twenty-one (21) days.
The cyclic voltammograms (hereinafter “CV”) were generated between −1000 mV to 1000 mV by applying a linear sweep potential at several scan rates. The CV second cycle was recorded to obtain the steady-state CVs, as well as the capacitance and charge-transfer capacitance of the electrodes and electrolyte solutions. All measurements were carried out at room temperature.Results and Discussions 1. Electrode Topography
The conventional Ti (Timicro) surface as shown in
Results from energy dispersive spectroscopy (hereinafter “EDS”) performed on commercially pure Ti substrates after osteoblasts were cultured for twenty-one (21) days revealed the presence of various minerals in newly formed bone, specifically magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) (See
X-ray diffraction (hereinafter “XRD”) analysis of conventional Ti and MWCNT-Ti after osteoblasts were cultured for twenty-one (21) days, showed hydroxyapatite deposited on MWCNT-Ti more than conventional Ti and anodized Ti. In addition, the amount of calcium deposited by osteoblasts as determined by a calcium quantification assay kit was 1.481 μg/cm2 after 7 days, 1.597 μg/cm2 after fourteen (14) days, and 2.483 μg/cm2 after twenty-one (21) days on conventional Ti. Importantly, these results indicated a greater deposition of calcium by osteoblasts on MWCNT-Ti.3. Electrochemical Behavior of Fe2+/3+ Redox Couple at the Timicro/Tinano and MWCNT-Ti Electrodes
The Fe(CN)64−/3− redox system is one of the most extensively studied redox couples in electrochemistry. In this evaluation, the CVs of The Fe(CN)64−/3− couples were electrolyzed by placing in a solution of 10 mM K3Fe(CN)6 and 1 M KNO3 in contact with Ti-based electrode surfaces, as shown in
From these results is can be concluded that MWCNTs have good electrochemical characteristics as electron mediators and adsorption matrices31, thus, possibly enhancing applications in biosensor systems. As note previously, other studies have indicated the possible use of CNT-modified electrodes for biosensing purposes. It has been shown that using CNTs may be a promising method to enhance detection sensitivity because they have high signal-to-noise ratios. The structure-dependent metallic character of CNTs should allow them to promote electron-transfer reactions for redox reactions, which can provide the foundation for unique biochemical sensing systems at low over-potentials. The electrolyte-electrode interface barriers have been reduced by CNTs, because they facilitate double-layer-effects. Typically, when the supporting electrolyte is in excess, at least a hundred-fold greater than the active electrolyte, the charge in the electrolyte solution causes the Debye layer to be more compact and rapidly exchange electrons with electroactive species, leading to sharpened cathodic and anodic peaks to be observed in CV.
Evaluating the electron transfer from MWCNTs grown out of Ti, herein, the electroactive species Ca and Fe ions were used. Moreover, the MWCNT-Ti electrode exhibited a high electroactive surface area according to the Randles-Sevcik equation for quasi-reversible and reversible process showed below, mainly due to the presence of MWCNTs that acted as a nanobarrier between the TiO2nano surface, which was the MWCNT growth template, and the electrolyte solution. For the quasi-reversible system (with 10−1>k>10−5 cm/s), the current was controlled by both the charge transfer and mass transport. The shape of the CV for this quasi-reversible system of MWCNT-Ti was more extended, as shown in
Where n is the number of electrons participating in redox process, na is the number of electrons participating in the charge-transfer step, A is the area of the working electrode (cm2), D is the diffusion coefficient of the molecules in the electrolyte solution (cm2/s), C is the concentration of the probe molecule in the bulk solution (molar), and γ is the scan rate of the sweep potential (V/s). When the Fe(CN)64−/3− redox system exhibits a heterogeneous one-electro transfer (n=1) and the concentration (C) is equal to 10 mM, the diffusion coefficient (D) is equal to 6.70±0.02×10−6 cm2/s.
As depicted in
This evaluation showed that calcium deposited by osteoblasts was detected only when using MWCNT-Ti as a working electrode, as evidenced in
After osteoblasts were cultured on Timicro and Tinano, these substrates were used to generate CV as shown in
Surface modification and growing MWCNTs from metals can lead to more versatile applications. For example, MWCNTs functionalized with thiol groups have been used for sensing aliphatic hydrocarbons (such as methanol, ethanol, proponal and butanol) forming unique electrical identifiers. MWCNTs grown on silicon substrates and integrated with unmodified plant cellulose as a film in both a room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) and bioelectrolytes, such as body sweat and blood were used as a supercapacitor in biological fluid at wide working temperatures of 195-423 K, which was better than any commercially available supercapacitor (233-358 K) due to their enhanced ionic conductivity. Therefore, the invention may also work here if used as a dry-body implant with much wider operating temperature ranges (such as to determine in vitro calcium adsorption). That is for example only, after a hip implant insertion, blood and body fluids surround the Ti implant, creating a specific capacitance for commercially pure Ti. Within one month, osteoblasts will deposit calcium and the capacitance at the interface of the medical implant and bone tissue will increase because the deposited calcium may surround the medical implant. From the present in vitro evaluation results, the capacitance of Ti and anodized Ti electrodes increased in the ionic osteoblast media after being cultured for fourteen (14) days, leading to the possibility of enhanced capacitance after bone tissue is formed in vivo.
Moreover, this film without electrolytes can serve as a cathode electrode in a lithium ion battery. Interestingly, the supercapacitor and battery, derived from a nanocomposite film, can be integrated together to build a hybrid, or dual-storage battery-in-supercapacitor device. The discharge of the battery is used to charge the supercapacitor because the ion double layer is formed at the surface of the battery cathode, and then forms the electrical double layer, which is discharged later in the supercapacitor mode, formed at the supercapacitor electrode.
In addition, any implanted electronics may be powered by the induction of an external power supply at low frequency pulse, or by implant battery (fabricated or self-integrated within the implant material). The low frequency of the inductive power source facilitates power transmission through the metal medical implant. A telemetry system in vivo with a small implantable transmitter could also use a high frequency pulse (such as radio frequency; RF) in order to transmit a signal to an external device. The sensor signals might have to be multiplexed and modulated at a specific RF, before being transmitted to an external device. To transmit the pulse interval modulated signal, a pacemaker feed-through forms a single loop antenna outside the metal case at one end of the implant. A microcontroller in an external device alternates a magnetic field, produced in vivo, with a power oscillator. It synchronizes the modulated pulse interval to recover the data stream. A system programming sensor microcontroller is also important to control its working capabilities. For example, for orthopedic applications, Friedmar et al. developed a new 9-channel telemetry transmitter used for in vivo load measurements in three patients with shoulder Ti endoprostheses. Telemetric devices for orthopedic application started in 1966. The telemetry and their applicable potentials are imperative for orthopedic application, which can be applied for developing a chip for calcium measurements for clinic use in the future.Conclusions
The capacitance of Ti in an aqueous system increased in the evaluation disclosed herein by anodization and growing MWCNTs out of anodized Ti nanopores. MWCNTs extended the redox potential when compared to bare Ti and anodized Ti. These results provide evidence that MWCNTs can be used as a novel electrode through their growth out of nanoporous anodized Ti due to their increasing capacitance. CV confirmed the redox peaks on MWCNT-Ti, likely due to the fact that MWCNTs improved electron transfer through the electrode when compared with bare Ti (both conventional and anodized). They enhanced the redox potential by enhancing the electron transfer in ionic solutions in the presence of the electroactive species, such as ferri/ferricyanide and calcium (deposited by osteoblasts). A previous study found that MWCNTs are cytocompatible and promoted osteoblast differentiation after twenty-one (21) days. Also, it is possible, that MWCNTs may be integrated into a supercapacitor or battery, enhancing the device's conductivity in vivo. Therefore, MWCNT-Ti can be considered as an electrode to determine new bone growth in situ surrounding an orthopedic implant and may be used in other medical applications to detect the presence and type of other tissues including but not limited to, soft, connective, including collagen, tendon, cartilage and other biological precursors of these tissue types. The ability of electrodes to sense calcium (deposited by osteoblasts) in specific concentrations might improve the diagnosis of orthopedic implant success or failure and, thus, improve clinical efficacy.
Various patent and/or scientific literature references have been referred to throughout the instant specification. The disclosures of these publications in their entireties are hereby incorporated by reference as if completely written herein. In view of the detailed description of the invention, one of ordinary skill in the art will be able to practice the invention as claimed without undue experimentation. Other aspects, advantages, and modifications are within the scope of the following claims as will be apparent to those skilled in the art.
Although the preferred embodiments have been depicted and described in detail herein, it will be apparent to those skilled in the relevant art that various modifications, additions and substitutions can be made without departing from its essence and therefore these are to be considered to be within the scope of the following claims.REFERENCES
- Ager III, J. W.; Balooch, G.; and R. O., 2006 Fracture, aging, and disease in bone, Journal of Materials Research 21, 1878-92.
- Ward, B. C.; and Webster, T. J., 2006 The effect of nanotopography on calcium and phosphorus deposition on metallic materials, in vitro Biomaterials 27, 3064-74.
- Liu, H.; and Webster, T. J., 2007 Nanomedicine for implants: A review of studies and necessary experimental tools, Biomaterials 28, 354-369.
- Orosz, G M.; Hannan, E.; Magaziner, J.; Koval, K.; Gilbert, M.; Aufses, A.; Straus, E.; Vespe, E.; and Siu, A. L., 2002 Hip fracture in the older patient: Reasons for delay in hospitalization and timing of surgical repair, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 50, 1336-1340.
- Yao, C.; Perla, V.; McKenzie, J. L.; Slamovich, E. B.; and Webster, T. J., 2005 Anodized Ti and Ti6A1V possessing nanometer surface features enhance osteoblast adhesion, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 1, 68-73.
- Zhu, X.; Chen, J.; Scheideler, L.; Reichl, R.; and Geis-Gerstorfer, J., 2004 Effects of topography and composition of titanium surface oxides on osteoblast responses, Biomaterials 25, 4087-103.
- Bekyarova, E.; Ni, Y.; Malarikey, E. B.; Montana, V.; McWilliams, J. L.; Haddon, R. C.; and Parpura, V., 2005 Applications of carbon nanotubes in biotechnology and biomedicine, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 1, 3-17.
- Khang, D.; Sato, M.; Price, R. L.; Ribbe, A. E.; and Webster, T. J., 2006 Selective adhesion and mineral deposition by osteoblasts on carbon nanofiber patterns, International Journal of Nanomedicine 1, 65-72.
- Zanello, L. P.; Zhao, B.; Hu, H.; and Haddon, R. C., 2006 Bone cell proliferation on carbon nanotubes, Nano Letters 1, 19-22.
- Zanello, L. P., 2006 Electrical properties of osteoblasts cultured on carbon nanotubes, Micro & Nano Letters 1, 19-22.
- Tsuchiya, N.; Sato, Y.; Aoki, N.; Yokoyama, A.; Watari, F.; Motomiya, K.; Jeyadevan, B.; and Tohji, K., 2007 Evaluation of multi-walled carbon nanotube scaffolds for osteoblast-like cells, AIP Conference Proceeding 898, 166-169.
- Ciombor, D. M. and Aaron, R. K., 1993 Influence of electromagnetic fields on endochondral bone formation, Journal of Cell Biochemistry 52, 37-41.
- Ciombor, D. M. and Aaron, R. K., 2005, The role of electrical stimulation in bone, repair Foot Ankle Clinical 10, 579-93.
- Christenson, E. M.; Anseth, K. S.; van den Beucken, J. J. J. P.; Chan, C. K.; Ercan, B.; Jansen, J. A.; Laurencin, C. T.; Li, W. J.; Murugan, R.; Nair, L. S.; Ramakrishna, S.; Tuan, R. S.; Webster, T. J.; and Mikos, A. G., 2006 Nanobiomaterial applications in orthopedics Journal of Orthopedic Research 10, 1-12.
- Webster, T. J., 2004 Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanophase metals: Ti, Ti6A14V, and CoCrMo, Biomaterials 25, 4731-39.
- Zhao, B.; Hu, H.; Mandal, S. K.; Haddon, R. C., 2005 A bone mimic based on the self-assembly of hydroxyapatite on chemically functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes Chemistry of Materials 17 3235-41
- Supronowicz, P. R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Ullmann, K. R.; Arulanandam, B. P.; Metzger, D. W.; Bizios, R., 2002 Novel current-conducting composite substrates for exposing osteoblasts to alternating current stimulation, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 59, 499-506.
- Besteman, K.; Lee, J. O.; Wiertz, F, G.; Heering, H. A.; Dekker, C., 2003 Enzyme coated carbon nanotubes as single-molecule biosensors, Nano Letters 3, 727-30.
- Harrison, B. S.; and Atala, A., 2007 Carbon nanotube applications for tissue engineering, Biomaterial 28, 344-53.
- Rochefort, A.; Avouris, P.; Lesage, F.; Salahub, D. R., 1999 Electrical and mechanical properties of distorted carbon nanotubes, Physical Review B 60, 824-30.
- Kreupl, F.; Graham, A. P.; Duesberg, G. S.; Steinhögl, W.; Liebau, M.; Unger, E.; and Hönlein, W., 2002 Carbon nanotubes in interconnect applications, Microelectronic Engineering 64, 399-408.
- Zhan, C.; Kaczmarek, R.; Loyo-Berrios, N.; Sangl, J.; Bright, R. A., J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 2007, 3, 526-533.
- Iijima, S, Nature 1991, 6348, 56-58.
- Lin, Y.; Taylor, S.; Li, H.; Fernando, K. A. S.; Qu, L.; Wang, W.; Gu, L.; Zhou, B.; Sun, Y., J. Mater. Chem. Y1-2004///, 4, 527-541.
- Webster, T. J.; Waid, M. C.; McKenzie, J. L.; Price, R. L.; Ejiofor, J. U., Nanotechnology 2004, 1, 48-54.
- Smart, S. K.; Cassady, A. I.; Lu, G. Q.; Martin, D. J., Carbon 2006/5, 6, 1034-1047.
- Zanello, L. P.; Zhao, B.; Hu, H.; Haddon, R. C., Nano Lett. 2006, 3, 562-567.
- Zanello, L. P. Micro Nano Lett., 2006, 1, 19-22.
- Balani, K.; Anderson, R.; Laha, T.; Andara, M.; Tercero, J.; Crumpler, E.; Agarwal, A., Biomaterials 2007/2, 4, 618-624.
- Chen, Y.; Zhang, T. H.; Gan, C. H.; Yu, G., Carbon 2007/4, 5, 998-1004.
- Wei, W.; Sethuraman, A.; Jin, C.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Narayan, R. J., Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology April/May 2007, 1284-1297(14).
- Harrison, B. S.; Atala, A., Biomaterials 2007/1, 2, 344-353.
- Supronowicz, P. R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Ullmann, K. R.; Arulanandam, B. P.; Metzger, D. W.; Bizios, R., J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 2002, 3, 499-506.
- Ciombor, D. M.; Aaron, R. K., Foot and Ankle Clinics of North America 2005/12, 4, 579-593.
- Aoki, N.; Yokoyama, A.; Nodasaka, Y.; Akasaka, T.; Uo, M.; Sato, Y.; Tohji, K.; Watari, F., Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology December 2005, 402-405 (4).
- Giannona, S.; Firkowska, I.; Rojas-Chapana, J.; Giersig, M., Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology April/May 2007, 1679-1683(5).
- Tsuchiya, N.; Sato, Y.; Aoki, N.; Yokoyama, A.; Watari, F.; Motomiya, K.; Jeyadevan, B.; Tohji, K., In Evaluation of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Scaffolds for Osteoblast Growth; Tohji, K., Tsuchiya, N. and Jeyadevan, B., Eds.; AIP: 2007; Vol. 898, pp 166-169.
- Sirivisoot, S.; Yao, C.; Xiao, X.; Sheldon, B. W.; Webster, T. J., Nanotechnology 2007, 36, 365102.
- Padigi, S. K.; Reddy, R. K. K.; Prasad, S., Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2007/1/15, 6, 829-837.
- Roy, S.; Vedala, H.; Choi, W., Nanotechnology 2006, 4, S14-S18.
- Tang, H.; Chen, J. H.; Huang, Z. P.; Wang, D. Z.; Ren, Z. F.; Nie, L. H.; Kuang, Y. F.; Yao, S. Z., Carbon 2004, 1, 191-197.
- Kurusu, F.; Koide, S.; Karube, I.; Gotoh, M., Anal. Lett. 2006, 903-911.
- Liu, Y.; Wang, M.; Zhao, F.; Xu, Z.; Dong, S., Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2005/12/15, 6, 984-988.
- Liu, S.; Lin, B.; Yang, X.; Zhang, Q. J., Phys. Chem. B 2007, 5, 1182-1188.
- Robertson, J., Materials Today 2004/10, 10, 46-52.
- Talapatra, S Kar, S.; Pal, S. K.; Vajtai J.; Ci S.; Victor, P.; Shaijumon, M. M.; Kaur, S.; Nalamasu, O.; Ajayan, P. M., Nat Nano, 112-116.
- Ngo, Q.; Petranovic, D.; Krishnan, S.; Cassell, A. M.; Ye, Q.; Li, J.; Meyyappan, M.; Yang, C. Y., Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on 2004, 311-317.
- Sato, S.; Kawabata, A.; Kondo, D.; Nihei, M.; Awano, Y., Chemical Physics Letters 2005/1/24, 1-3, 149-154.
- Mathiowitz, E., Encyclopedia of Controlled Drug Delivery; John Wiley & Sons: 1999; Vol. 1-2, pp 1120.
- Calafiori, A.; Di Marco, G.; Martino, G.; Marotta, M., J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med.
- Wang, H.; Lee, J.; Moursi, A.; Lannutti, J. J., Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2003, 2, 599-608.
- Sotiropoulou, S.; Gavalas, V.; Vamvakaki, V.; Chaniotakis, N. A., Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2003/3, 2-3, 211-215.
- Fang, W. C.; Sun, C. L.; Huang, J. H.; Chen, L. C.; Chyan, O.; Chen, K. H.; Papakonstantinou, P., Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 2006, 3, A175-A178.
- G. D. Christian, Analytical Chemistry; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1980.
- Allen J. Bard; Larry R. Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications; Wiley: 2000; pp 856.
- Hrapovic, S.; Liu, Y.; Male, K. B.; Luong, J. H. T., Anal. Chem. 2004, 4, 1083-1088.
- Hrapovic, S.; Luong, J. H. T., Anal. Chem. 2003, 14, 3308-3315.
- Jeansonne, B. G.; Feagin, F. F.; McMinn, R. W.; Shoemaker, R. L.; Rehm, W. S., J. Dent. Res. 1979, 4, 1415-1423.
- Pushparaj, V.; Shaijumon, M.; Kumar, A.; Murugesan, S.; Ci, L.; Vajtai, R.; Linhardt, R.; Nalamasu, O.; Ajayan, P., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2007, 34, 13574-13577.
- Graichen, F.; Arnold, R.; Rohlmann, A.; Bergmann, G., IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2007, 2, 253-261.
- Kaufman, K.; Kovacevic, N.; Irby, S.; Colwell, C., Journal of Biomechanics 1996, 5, 667-671.
- D'Lima, D.; Townsend, C.; Arms, S.; Morris, B.; Colwell, C., Journal of Biomechanics 2005, 2, 299-304.
- Bergmann, G.; Deuretzbacher, G.; Heller, M.; Graichen, F.; Rohlmann, A.; Strauss, J.; Duda, G. N., Journal of Biomechanics 2001, 7, 859-871.
- Bergmann, G.; Graichen, F.; Rohlmann, A.; Verdonschot, N.; van Lenthe, G. H., J. Biomech. 2001, 4, 421-428.
- Graichen, F.; Bergmann, G.; Rohlmann, A., Journal of Biomechanics 1999, 10, 1113-1117.
- Graichen, F.; Bergmann, G., Journal of Biomedical Engineering 1991, 5, 370-374.
1. A method for enhancing osteoblast functionality of a medical implant, the method comprising:
- obtaining a medical implant; and
- treating a surface of the medical implant to modify the surface characteristics resulting in increased functionality of osteoblasts positioned juxtaposed to the surface of the medical implant.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the medical implant is fabricated from a metal substrate.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the treating a surface of a medical implant comprises anodizing the surface resulting in the formation of anodized nanotubular structures, the anodized nanotubular structures increasing the functionality of osteoblasts positioned juxtaposed to the surface.
4. The method of claim 3, further comprising generating a nanostructure within the anodized nanotubular structures.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the generating a nanostructure within the anodized nanotubular structures comprises performing a chemical vapor deposition process.
6. The method of claim 4, wherein the nanostructure comprises carbon nanotubes.
7. The method of claim 2, wherein the metal substrate is titanium.
8. A method of increasing cellular activity of a medical implant, the method comprising:
- obtaining a medical implant; and
- processing the surface of the medical implant to modify the surface topography resulting in increased cellular mineral deposition on the surface by cells positioned adjacent to the medical implant surface.
9. A medical device having enhanced cytocompatibility capabilities, the medical device comprising:
- a metallic substrate; and
- an outer surface of the metallic substrate comprised of a composition of nanosized structures attached to the outer surface.
10. The medical device of claim 9, wherein the composition of nanosized structures includes a plurality of nanotubes that are integrally attached to the metallic substrate.
11. The medical device of claim 9, wherein the metallic substrate is titanium and the integrally attached nanotubes have multi-walled carbon nanotubes growing within the nanotubes, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes causing the medical device to have enhanced cytocompatibility capabilities.
12. A biosensor for use with a medical implant, the biosensor comprising an electrode configured to be integrally coupled to an outer surface of the medical implant, wherein the biosensor detects electrochemical changes adjacent to the medical implant.
13. The biosensor of claim 12, wherein the electrode comprises at least one nanostructure.
14. The biosensor of claim 13, wherein the at least one nanostructure further comprises at least one multi-walled carbon nanotube and at least one nanotube, wherein the at least one multi-walled carbon nanotube is positioned inside of the at least one nanotube.
15. The biosensor of claim 12, wherein the biosensor detects the conductivity of tissue positioned adjacent to the medical implant.
16. The biosensor of claim 15, wherein the level of conductivity detected by the biosensor identifies the tissue type positioned adjacent to the medical implant.
17. The biosensor of claim 15, wherein the level of conductivity detected by the biosensor identifies the presence of tissue positioned adjacent to the medical implant.
18. A method of manufacturing a medical implant with a biosensor, the method comprising:
- obtaining a medical implant; and
- treating a surface of the medical implant to modify the surface characteristics resulting in the formation of a biosensor attached to the surface of the medical implant.
19. The method of claim 18, wherein the treating a surface of a medical implant further comprises anodizing the surface and performing a chemical vapor deposition process, wherein the treating a surface results in growing a plurality of multi-walled carbon nanotubes within a plurality of anodized nanotubular structures.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the plurality of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in combination within the plurality of anodized nanotubular structures comprises the biosensor that is attached to the surface of the medical implant.
21. A method of integrating a biosensor with a medical implant, the method comprising:
- obtaining a medical implant;
- applying a treatment process to an outer surface of the medical implant;
- producing a plurality of anodized nanotubular structures on the outer surface of the medical implant with each of the nanotubular structures having a lumen;
- growing carbon nanotubes within the lumen of a plurality of anodized nanotubular structures;
- wherein the biosensor comprises the plurality of nanotubular structures in combination with the carbon nanotubes.
22. The method of claim 21, wherein the biosensor measures electrochemical changes at an interface between the biosensor and the medical implant.
23. The method of claim 21, wherein the biosensor measures conductivity at an interface between the biosensor and the medical implant.
Filed: Jul 10, 2008
Publication Date: Dec 8, 2011
Applicant: NANOVIS, LLC. (Columbia City, IN)
Inventors: Sirinrath Sirivisoot (Winston-Salem, NC), Chang Yao (Providence, RI), Xingcheng Xiao (Providence, RI), Brian Sheldon (Providence, RI), Thomas Webster (Providence, RI)
Application Number: 12/668,706
International Classification: A61F 2/28 (20060101); B05D 7/14 (20060101); C23C 28/00 (20060101); A61N 1/00 (20060101); B05D 5/00 (20060101); C25D 11/02 (20060101); B82Y 40/00 (20110101);