Crystalography Patents (Class 378/73)
  • Patent number: 9851313
    Abstract: A method of X-ray analysis measures X-ray diffraction in transmission. In order to carry out quantitative measurements, a background measurement is taken slightly away from the diffraction peak and the ratio of measured intensities used to correct for variations in sample composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2015
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2017
    Assignee: PANALYTICAL B.V.
    Inventors: Waltherus Van Den Hoogenhof, Charalampos Zarkadas
  • Patent number: 9500597
    Abstract: The present invention includes providing a plurality of standard particles; providing a substantially crystalline material having one or more characteristic spatial parameters, disposing the plurality of standard particles proximate to a portion of the substantially crystalline material, acquiring imagery data of the plurality of standard particles and the portion of the substantially crystalline material, establishing a spatial relationship between the plurality of standard particles and the portion of the substantially crystalline material utilizing the acquired imagery data, and determining one or more spatial parameters of the plurality of standard particles utilizing the one or more characteristic spatial parameters of the substantially crystalline material and the established spatial relationship between the plurality of standard particles and the portion of the substantially crystalline material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2016
    Assignee: KLA-Tencor Corporation
    Inventor: Yu Guan
  • Patent number: 9186728
    Abstract: A cutting tool having excellent chip treatability and adhesion resistance is provided. The cutting tool includes a hard sintered body in at least a cutting edge and has a rake face and a flank face. The rake face has a chip breaker in a protruded or uneven shape. The hard sintered body contains at least 20% by volume of cubic boron nitride. A region of not more than 20 ?m from a surface of the hard sintered body on the rake face side includes A-structures made of cubic boron nitride and B-structures made of at least one selected from the group consisting of hexagonal boron nitride, amorphous boron nitride, and boron oxide. The volume ratio of the B-structures to the sum of the A-structures and B-structures, B/(A+B), is not less than 5% by volume and not more than 90% by volume.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2015
    Assignee: SUMITOMO ELECTRIC HARDMETAL CORP.
    Inventors: Makoto Setoyama, Satoru Kukino
  • Patent number: 9080944
    Abstract: An apparatus for examining the surface of a crystalline sample uses in-plane grazing incidence diffraction with a position-sensitive detector. The x-ray source illuminates an extended region of the sample and, for crystal sections having the appropriate lattice orientation, an elongated diffraction signal is produced. The relative position of the sample and the x-ray beam may then be changed to illuminate different regions of the sample so that the diffraction signal corresponds to these other regions. By scanning across the entire sample, a spatial profile of the sample surface may be generated. The system may be used to locate crystal boundaries, defects, or the presence of attenuating materials on the sample surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2015
    Inventor: Jonathan Giencke
  • Patent number: 9074992
    Abstract: There is provided an X-ray diffraction apparatus comprising an X-ray topography device for providing a spatial geometric correspondence to an X-ray exiting from a planar region of a sample to detect the X-ray as a planar X-ray topograph, and outputting the X-ray topograph as a signal; a two-dimensional imaging device for receiving a light-image of the planar region of the sample and outputting the light-image as a signal specified by planar positional information; and a video-synthesizing arithmetic control device for generating synthesized video data on the basis of an output signal from the X-ray topograph and an output signal from the imaging device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2015
    Assignee: RIGAKU CORPORATION
    Inventors: Tetsuya Ozawa, Ryuji Matsuo, Katsuhiko Inaba
  • Patent number: 9022651
    Abstract: A method for correcting erroneous intensity measurements caused by defective pixels of the detector for a single-crystal X-ray diffraction system uses collected diffraction images and a defective pixel list to modify three-dimensional reflection profiles by replacing profile elements affected by the defective pixels with corresponding profile elements from a model profile. Reflection positions on the detector are predicted using an orientation matrix for the crystal and a three-dimensional observed profile is constructed for each reflection. A model profile is constructed using normalized profile data from multiple reflection profiles. The observed profiles are compared with the defective pixel list to determine which profile elements are affected by defective pixels, and those elements are replaced by corresponding elements from the model profile.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Inventors: Joerg Kaercher, John L. Chambers
  • Publication number: 20150117611
    Abstract: A crystallization device for in situ x-ray diffraction of biological samples includes a flat plate made of single crystal quartz, silicon or sapphire and having an array of wells or lanes defined on the plate. The crystallization device may be in the form of a cover slide used with a crystallization plate in a vapor diffusion setup. Also disclosed is a method for preparing biological samples for crystallization and x-ray diffraction, including: obtaining a crystallization device made of single crystal quartz, silicon or sapphire; loading a solution containing biological molecules onto the crystal support device; maintaining the solution in a crystal growth environment to grow crystals of the biological molecules; removing the crystal support device carrying the crystals from the crystal growth environment; exposing the crystals carried on the crystal support device to an X-ray beam; and recording X-ray diffracted by the biological crystals.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2014
    Publication date: April 30, 2015
    Applicant: RENZ RESEARCH, INC.
    Inventor: Zhong Ren
  • Publication number: 20150092920
    Abstract: The present invention consists of an x-ray goniometer which is positioned directly adjacent to processing machines used in the cutting, milling, drilling and shaping of crystal boules and crystal ingots, used in conjunction with an adjustable tilt platform capable of pitch, yaw and roll movement, to allow in-situ measurement and automatic adjustment of crystal orientation with respect to the processing machine. The goniometer may be secured to either the tool itself or a portion of the machine which is adjacent the piece to be worked. Various embodiments include an x-ray goniometer and adjustable tilt platform incorporated into a core drilling machine, wire saw, surface grinder, polishing apparatus, or orientation flat or notch grinder.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 8, 2014
    Publication date: April 2, 2015
    Applicant: Rubicon Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Srikanth KAMIREDDI
  • Patent number: 8934606
    Abstract: The invention includes an x-ray goniometer positionable directly adjacent to processing machines used in the cutting, milling, drilling and shaping of crystal boules and crystal ingots, used in conjunction with an adjustable tilt platform capable of pitch, yaw and roll movement, allowing in-situ measurement and automatic adjustment of crystal orientation with respect to the processing machine. The goniometer may be secured to the tool or a portion of the machine which is adjacent the piece to be worked. Various embodiments include an x-ray goniometer and adjustable tilt platform incorporated into a core drilling machine, saw, surface grinder, polishing apparatus, or orientation flat or notch grinder. Incorporating an x-ray goniometer and adjustable tilt platform directly into a crystal processing machine results in a decrease in overall processing time and labor, and a significant increase in precision when processing crystal ingots into a final product, such as a notched wafer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2015
    Assignee: Rubicon Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Srikanth Kamireddi
  • Patent number: 8903040
    Abstract: An X-ray multiple spectroscopic analyzer includes an X-ray source, an optical system inputting X-rays to a single-crystal sample, a sample stage supporting the single-crystal sample, an X-ray diffraction detector, a rotation driving system that changes the angle of the X-ray diffraction detector, an X-ray diffraction measurement data storage unit, a structural analysis data analyzing unit, an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence detector, an X-ray fluorescence measurement data storage unit, an X-ray fluorescence analyzing unit, an X-ray fluorescence analysis data storage unit, and X-ray fluorescence analysis data acquiring unit. The structural analysis data analyzing unit analyzes the data of the crystal structure further on the basis of the analysis data of the fluorescent X-rays output from the X-ray fluorescence analysis data acquiring unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Rigaku Corporation
    Inventors: Masataka Maeyama, Akihito Yamano
  • Patent number: 8903043
    Abstract: In an X-ray detector operating in a rolling shutter read out mode, by precisely synchronizing sample rotation with the detector readout, the effects of timing skew on the image intensities and angular positions caused by the rolling shutter read out can be compensated by interpolation or calculation, thus allowing the data to be accurately integrated with conventional software. In one embodiment, the reflection intensities are interpolated with respect to time to recreate data that is synchronized to a predetermined time. This interpolated data can then be processed by any conventional integration routine to generate a 3D model of the sample. In another embodiment a 3D integration routine is specially adapted to allow the time-skewed data to be processed directly and generate a 3D model of the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Bruker AXS, Inc.
    Inventors: Roger D Durst, Joerg Kaercher, Gregory A Wachter, John L Chambers, Jr.
  • Publication number: 20140348298
    Abstract: A method for analyzing a sample by diffractometry and a diffractometer, where the diffractometer includes a collimated source, a detection collimator, and a spectrometric detector, the detection axis of the detector and the collimator form a diffraction angle with the central axis of an incident beam and an energy spectrum is established for each pixel of the detector. and The measured spectra are readjusted by a change in variable that takes into account the energy of the scattered radiation and the angle of observation. measured The spectra are combined and a check is made on the implementation of at least one multi-material criterion representative of the presence of a plurality of layers of materials and groups of pixels are formed according to the results of this check, where each group corresponds to a single layer of material and the measured spectra obtained for the pixels of the group are combined.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 26, 2012
    Publication date: November 27, 2014
    Inventors: Bahaa Ghammraoui, Joachim Tabary, Caroline Paulus
  • Patent number: 8887806
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a method of servicing a wellbore comprising the steps of preparing a dry cement blend comprising a base cement and a crystalline component wherein the dry cement blend is based on an initial dry cement blend formulation, obtaining a diffraction pattern of a sample of the dry cement blend, generating a model diffraction pattern, refining the model diffraction pattern using a structural refinement method, determining the type and amount crystalline components present in the dry cement blend, generating a final dry cement blend formulation, and comparing the initial dry cement blend formulation to the final dry cement blend formulation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.
    Inventors: Benjamin John Iverson, Ray Loghry, Christopher Lane Edwards
  • Publication number: 20140307854
    Abstract: An X-ray diffraction method of mapping grain structures in a polycrystalline material sample, where an X-ray detector detects spots or line-shaped segments from beams diffracted from at least some of the grains. A processing device analyses values received from the X-ray detector and identifies at least the position of the spots or line-shaped segments. The processing device discretizes an initial three-dimensional model of the polycrystalline material sample into voxels and reconstructs the grains in the model by iterative testing associating crystallographic orientations of the voxels to the detected spots or line-shaped segments.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2014
    Publication date: October 16, 2014
    Applicants: CARL ZEISS X-RAY MICROSCOPY, INC., DANMARKS TEKNISKE UNIVERSITET
    Inventors: Erik Mejdal LAURIDSEN, Stefan Othmar POULSEN, Péter REISCHIG
  • Publication number: 20140260623
    Abstract: According to aspects of the present disclosure, features of interest in materials are analyzed. The method comprises capturing a morphology of the feature of interest on a surface or an interior of a material under evaluation. The method also comprises selecting targeted spatial locations on the surface or the interior of the material under evaluation based upon the captured morphology. Also, the method comprises capturing information about the local state (e.g., crystallographic orientation) of the surface or the interior of the sample at the selected targeted spatial locations. Still further, the method comprises using the captured local state information to fill in the non-targeted spatial locations in the material corresponding to the captured morphology and or topology.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: MRL Materials Resources LLC
    Inventors: Ayman A. Salem, Daniel P. Satko, Joshua B. Shaffer
  • Publication number: 20140254763
    Abstract: An X-ray diffraction method of mapping grain structures in a polycrystalline material sample, where an X-ray detector detects substantially line-shaped segments from beams diffracted from at least some of the grains. A processing device analyses values received from the X-ray detector and identifies at least the position and the length of the line-shaped segments. The line-shaped segments are paired as originating from diffractions from the same grain and the positions of the paired line-shaped segments are used in determining the crystallographic grain position of this grain within in the polycrystalline material sample. The length of the paired line-shaped segments is used in determining a width of this grain.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2013
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: DANMARKS TEKNISKE UNIVERSITET
    Inventors: Erik Mejdal LAURIDSEN, Stefan Othmar POULSEN
  • Publication number: 20140177801
    Abstract: Embodiments of the disclosure relate to X-ray imaging systems. In one embodiment, the X-ray imaging system features a target configured to receive a focused electron beam from an electron emitter and emit a line source X-ray beam as a result of receiving the focused electron beam; and a monochromator crystal configured to receive the line source X-ray beam from the target and diffract only a portion of the X-rays, wherein the portion of X-rays satisfies the Bragg diffraction condition for the monochromator crystal, and wherein the monochromator crystal is oriented relative to the target such that the portion of the X-rays from the target that satisfy the Bragg condition illuminate an entire length of a surface of the monochromator crystal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: June 26, 2014
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventors: Susanne Madeline Lee, Sudeep Mandal
  • Patent number: 8731138
    Abstract: A method for analysis includes directing a converging beam of X-rays toward a surface of a sample having an epitaxial layer formed thereon, and sensing the X-rays that are diffracted from the sample while resolving the sensed X-rays as a function of angle so as to generate a diffraction spectrum including a diffraction peak and fringes due to the epitaxial layer. A characteristic of the fringes is analyzed in order to measure a relaxation of the epitaxial layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2014
    Assignee: Jordan Valley Semiconductor Ltd.
    Inventors: Boris Yokhin, Isaac Mazor, Alexander Krohmal, Amos Gvirtzman, Gennady Openganden, David Berman, Matthew Wormington
  • Patent number: 8699665
    Abstract: A wavelength-classifying type X-ray diffraction device bombards a sample with characteristic X-rays generated from an X-ray generation source, and detects characteristic X-rays diffracted by the sample using an X-ray detector. The X-ray generation source is composed of several metals of different atomic number, respective metals generating several characteristic X-rays of different wavelengths. An X-ray detector is composed of several pixels for receiving X-rays and outputting pulse signals corresponding to X-ray wavelengths. Pixels are respectively furnished with classification circuits. The classification circuits classify and output pixel output signals based on each of characteristic X-ray wavelengths. X-ray intensity is detected on a per-wavelength basis in individual pixels 12. Measurement data based on different wavelength X-rays are acquired simultaneously in just one measurement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: Rigaku Corporation
    Inventors: Kazuyuki Matsushita, Takuto Sakumura, Yuji Tsuji, Masataka Maeyama, Kimiko Hasegawa
  • Publication number: 20140044237
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a micro-gripper comprising tweezers, designed to be used for the harvesting of fragile sub-millimeter samples from their production or storage medium. The tweezers may be equipped with removable soft ending elements to prevent the deterioration of the sample. When coupled to a robotic arm, this micro-gripper allows automated flow of operations in a continuous and automated process, from harvesting to sample preparation and analysis. The present invention is particularly used in X-ray crystallography.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 7, 2013
    Publication date: February 13, 2014
    Applicant: COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENERGIES ALTERNATIVES
    Inventors: Jean-Luc Ferrer, Mohammad Yaser Heidari Khajepour, Nathalie Agnes Larive, Xavier Vernede
  • Publication number: 20140033966
    Abstract: Plate-like samples each having as a principal plane thereof a cross section perpendicular to the long axis direction of a polycrystalline silicon rod grown by the deposition using a chemical vapor deposition method are sampled; an X-ray diffraction measurement is performed omnidirectionally in the plane of each of the plate-like samples thus sampled; and when none of the plate-like samples has any X-ray diffraction peak with a diffraction intensity deviating from the average value ±2×standard deviation (?±2?) found for any one of the Miller indices <111>, <220>, <311> and <400>, the polycrystalline silicon rod is selected as the raw material for use in the production of single-crystalline silicon. The use of such a polycrystalline silicon raw material suppresses the local occurrence of the portions remaining unmelted, and can contribute to the stable production of single-crystalline silicon.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2012
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Applicant: Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shuichi Miyao, Junichi Okada, Shigeyoshi Netsu
  • Patent number: 8605858
    Abstract: Embodiments of methods and systems for inspecting a structure for a crystallographic imperfection are provided. In the method, an X-ray wavelength that is particularly susceptible to diffraction by the crystallographic imperfection is identified. Then an X-ray source is provided to emit X-rays in the identified X-ray wavelength. While placing the structure at a sequence of positions relative to the X-ray source, X-rays are directed at the structure in multiple, non-parallel arrays to create sequential patterns of diffracted X-rays. The patterns of diffracted X-rays are digitally captured and communicated to a computer that compares them to locate the crystallographic imperfection. For a surface imperfection, the imperfection may be marked with a target to allow for physical removal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2013
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventors: Surendra Singh, Andy Szuromi, Vladimir K. Tolpygo, Andy Kinney
  • Patent number: 8600004
    Abstract: An incident X-ray is emitted in a wide angular sector toward an amorphous material specimen which backscatters the X-rays. The method comprises: a step of recording experimental photon intensity measurements as a function of the angle of incidence; a step of correcting the experimental intensity, taking into account at least the absorption phenomena inside the specimen dependent on the penetration length l of the incident wave inside the specimen before reflection; a normalization step referring the corrected intensity arising from the experimental intensity to an electron intensity according to a normalization coefficient (?); a step of calculating a discretized function Q.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
    Inventor: Olivier Bouty
  • Patent number: 8576985
    Abstract: The methods of the invention determine the unit cell parameters of a crystalline solid form using diffraction data and applying an algorithm. Using the algorithm, the unit cell parameters may be determined, which may allow one to distinguish between different crystalline solid forms of a substance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: Aptuit (West Lafayette) LLC
    Inventor: Richard B. McClurg
  • Patent number: 8571177
    Abstract: A goniometer base for X-ray crystallography comprises a magnetic steel part with a cylindrical hole, a compliant cylindrical part that is inserted into this hole, and a cylindrical tube that is press-fit into the hole and holds the compliant part in place, such that when a crystal mounting tool is inserted through the concentric holes in each part, it is positively gripped and held in place at both T=300 K and T=100 K.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Cornell University
    Inventors: Robert E. Thorne, Benjamin Apker, Eric Hunt
  • Publication number: 20130279653
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus are provided for performing back-reflection energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD). This exhibits extremely low sensitivity to the morphology of the sample under investigation. As a consequence of this insensitivity, unprepared samples can be analyzed using this method. For example, in a geological context, whole rock samples become amenable to analysis. Modifications of the technique are described to suppress fluorescence signals that would otherwise obscure the diffraction signals.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 19, 2012
    Publication date: October 24, 2013
    Inventor: Graeme Mark Hansford
  • Patent number: 8548123
    Abstract: An area detector used in a two-dimensional system is used as a point detector in Bragg-Brentano and other geometries by providing the area detector with a mask the limits the area through which X-rays can enter the detector. Secondary X-ray optics and a monochromator that are part of the diffractometer geometry are attached to the area detector mask to allow a fast and easy switch between the two-dimensional detector mode and the point detector mode. A concave detector mask is used with a spherical detector in order to reduce the secondary beam path and increase detector efficiency and the opening in the detector mask can be offset from the mask center to achieve high 2? angle measurements. Single channel bypath electronics are used to disregard the dimensional position of each X-ray count to increase the efficiency and speed of the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Bruker AXS, Inc.
    Inventor: Bob Baoping He
  • Publication number: 20130196160
    Abstract: A method for producing a capsule for protein crystallization is provided. The method comprises adding a solution containing a protein and a gelling agent to an ionic cross-linking solution to form an ionically cross-linked gel capsule that encapsulates a solution of the protein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 18, 2012
    Publication date: August 1, 2013
    Applicant: RIKEN
    Inventor: Michihiro Sugahara
  • Patent number: 8462913
    Abstract: A radiation detecting apparatus includes a collimator and a detector, the collimator having a material for blocking radiation and a region that is a sector of an annulus or multiple regions in a configuration in the shape of a sector of an annulus for allowing transmission of the radiation. The detector is spaced a distance from the collimator such that when a radiation source and sample crystal material are positioned at suitable positions, the radiation is collimated by the collimator and contacts the sample a predetermined distance from the detector at multiple of locations corresponding to the region or regions of the collimator. The Bragg diffracted radiation from the crystal material at two or more and preferably all of the locations overlap at the detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2013
    Assignees: Nottingham Trent University, Cranfield University
    Inventors: Paul Evans, Keith Rogers
  • Patent number: 8457280
    Abstract: An X-ray diffraction contrast tomography system (DCT) comprising a laboratory X-ray source (2), a staging device (5) rotating a polycrystalline material sample in the direct path of the X-ray beam, a first X-ray detector (6) detecting the direct X-ray beam being transmitted through the crystalline material sample, a second X-ray detector (7) positioned between the staging device and the first X-ray detector for detecting diffracted X-ray beams, and a processing device (15) for analysing detected values. The crystallographic grain orientation of the individual grain in the polycrystalline sample is determined based on the two-dimensional position of extinction spots and the associated angular position of the sample for a set of extinction spots pertaining to the individual grain.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2013
    Assignee: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
    Inventors: Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Henning Friis Poulsen
  • Patent number: 8437450
    Abstract: A method for analysis includes directing a converging beam of X-rays toward a surface of a sample having multiple single-crystal layers, including at least a first layer and a second layer that is formed over and tilted relative to the first layer. The X-rays that are diffracted from each of the first and second layers are sensed simultaneously while resolving the sensed X-rays as a function of angle so as to generate a diffraction spectrum including at least a first diffraction peak due to the first layer and a second diffraction peak due to the second layer. The diffraction spectrum is analyzed so as to identify a characteristic of at least the second layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2013
    Assignee: Jordan Valley Semiconductors Ltd.
    Inventors: John Wall, David Jacques, Boris Yokhin, Alexander Krokhmal, Paul Ryan, Richard Bytheway, David Berman, Matthew Wormington
  • Patent number: 8385503
    Abstract: An X-ray diffraction contrast tomography system (DCT) comprising a laboratory X-ray source (2), a staging device (5) rotating a polycrystalline material sample in the direct path of the X-ray beam, a first X-ray detector (6) detecting the direct X-ray beam being transmitted through the crystalline material sample, a second X-ray detector (7) positioned between the staging device and the first X-ray detector for detecting diffracted X-ray beams, and a processing device (15) for analysing detected values. The crystallographic grain orientation of the individual grain in the polycrystalline sample is determined based on the two-dimensional position of extinction spots and the associated angular position of the sample for a set of extinction spots pertaining to the individual grain.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2013
    Assignee: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
    Inventors: Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Henning Friis Poulsen
  • Publication number: 20130028385
    Abstract: The invention includes an x-ray goniometer positionable directly adjacent to processing machines used in the cutting, milling, drilling and shaping of crystal boules and crystal ingots, used in conjunction with an adjustable tilt platform capable of pitch, yaw and roll movement, allowing in-situ measurement and automatic adjustment of crystal orientation with respect to the processing machine. The goniometer may be secured to the tool or a portion of the machine which is adjacent the piece to be worked. Various embodiments include an x-ray goniometer and adjustable tilt platform incorporated into a core drilling machine, saw, surface grinder, polishing apparatus, or orientation flat or notch grinder. Incorporating an x-ray goniometer and adjustable tilt platform directly into a crystal processing machine results in a decrease in overall processing time and labor, and a significant increase in precision when processing crystal ingots into a final product, such as a notched wafer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 2, 2012
    Publication date: January 31, 2013
    Applicant: RUBICON TECHNOLOGY, INC.
    Inventor: Srikanth KAMIREDDI
  • Publication number: 20130004513
    Abstract: Provided are methods of screening to identify molecules capable of binding to CD4 and capable of activating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Further provided are antibodies and antibody fragments capable of activating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and methods and uses involving the antibodies and fragments thereof.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 30, 2012
    Publication date: January 3, 2013
    Inventors: Frank Osterroth, Christoph Uherek, Christoph Bruecher, Benjamin Daelken, André Engling, Chantal Zuber, Niklas Czeloth, Holger Wallmeier, Kirsten Völp, Gregor Schulz
  • Publication number: 20120328079
    Abstract: Embodiments of methods and systems for inspecting a structure for a crystallographic imperfection are provided. In the method, an X-ray wavelength that is particularly susceptible to diffraction by the crystallographic imperfection is identified. Then an X-ray source is provided to emit X-rays in the identified X-ray wavelength. While placing the structure at a sequence of positions relative to the X-ray source, X-rays are directed at the structure in multiple, non-parallel arrays to create sequential patterns of diffracted X-rays. The patterns of diffracted X-rays are digitally captured and communicated to a computer that compares them to locate the crystallographic imperfection. For a surface imperfection, the imperfection may be marked with a target to allow for physical removal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 27, 2011
    Publication date: December 27, 2012
    Applicant: HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.
    Inventors: Surendra Singh, Andy Szuromi, Vladimir K. Tolpygo, Andy Kinney
  • Publication number: 20120281814
    Abstract: A method for analysis includes directing a converging beam of X-rays toward a surface of a sample having an epitaxial layer formed thereon, and sensing the X-rays that are diffracted from the sample while resolving the sensed X-rays as a function of angle so as to generate a diffraction spectrum including a diffraction peak and fringes due to the epitaxial layer. A characteristic of the fringes is analyzed in order to measure a relaxation of the epitaxial layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 12, 2012
    Publication date: November 8, 2012
    Applicant: JORDAN VALLEY SEMICONDUCTORS LTD
    Inventors: Boris Yokhin, Isaac Mazor, Alexander Krohmal, Amos Gvirtzman, Gennady Openganden, David Berman, Matthew Wormington
  • Publication number: 20120281813
    Abstract: A monochromator is adapted to select at least one band of wavelengths from diverging incident radiation. The apparatus includes a first crystal and a second crystal. A band of emitted wavelengths of the first crystal is adapted to the at least one band of wavelengths. A surface curvature of the first crystal is adapted to focus emitted radiation in a first plane. A band of emitted wavelengths of the second crystal also is adapted to the at least one band of wavelengths. Parallel faces of a lattice structure of the second crystal are oriented at a first predetermined angle from a surface of the second crystal. In another embodiment, an apparatus is adapted to select at least one band of wavelengths from diverging incident synchrotron radiation in a given range of wavelengths with an energy resolution finer than about five parts in 10000 and optical efficiency greater than about 50 percent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 24, 2010
    Publication date: November 8, 2012
    Applicant: The Trustees of Columbia University in the City New York
    Inventor: Joseph P. Lidestri
  • Patent number: 8300767
    Abstract: A wavelength-classifying type X-ray diffraction device bombards a sample with characteristic X-rays generated from an X-ray generation source, and detects characteristic X-rays diffracted by the sample using an X-ray detector. The X-ray generation source is composed of several metals of different atomic number, respective metals generating several characteristic X-rays of different wavelengths. An X-ray detector is composed of several pixels for receiving X-rays and outputting pulse signals corresponding to X-ray wavelengths. Pixels are respectively furnished with classification circuits. The classification circuits classify and output pixel output signals based on each of characteristic X-ray wavelengths. X-ray intensity is detected on a per-wavelength basis in individual pixels 12. Measurement data based on different wavelength X-rays are acquired simultaneously in just one measurement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2012
    Assignee: Rigaku Corporation
    Inventors: Kazuyuki Matsushita, Takuto Sakumura, Yuji Tsuji, Masataka Maeyama, Kimiko Hasegawa
  • Publication number: 20120244631
    Abstract: Techniques for determining values for a metric of microscale interactions include determining a mesoscale metric for a plurality of mesoscale interaction types, wherein a value of the mesoscale metric for each mesoscale interaction type is based on a corresponding function of values of the microscale metric for the plurality of the microscale interaction types. A plurality of observations that indicate the values of the mesoscale metric are determined for the plurality of mesoscale interaction types. Values of the microscale metric are determined for the plurality of microscale interaction types based on the plurality of observations and the corresponding functions and compressed sensing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 22, 2012
    Publication date: September 27, 2012
    Applicant: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
    Inventors: Harley McAdams, Mohammed AlQuraishi
  • Patent number: 8259901
    Abstract: The present invention consists of an x-ray goniometer which is positioned directly adjacent to processing machines used in the cutting, milling, drilling and shaping of crystal boules and crystal ingots, used in conjunction with an adjustable tilt platform capable of pitch, yaw and roll movement, to allow in-situ measurement and automatic adjustment of crystal orientation with respect to the processing machine. The goniometer may be secured to either the tool itself or a portion of the machine which is adjacent the piece to be worked. Various embodiments include an x-ray goniometer and adjustable tilt platform incorporated into a core drilling machine, wire saw, surface grinder, polishing apparatus, or orientation flat or notch grinder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2012
    Assignee: Rubicon Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Srikanth Kamireddi
  • Publication number: 20120219992
    Abstract: Certain embodiments provide a method for crystallizing a GPCR. The method may employ a fusion protein comprising, from N-terminus to C-terminus: a) a first portion of a family C G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), wherein the first portion comprises the TM1, TM2 and TM3, regions of the GPCR; b) a stable, folded protein insertion; and c) a second portion of the GPCR, wherein the second portion comprises the TM4, TM5 TM6 and TM7 regions of the GPCR.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 29, 2011
    Publication date: August 30, 2012
    Inventor: Brian Kobilka
  • Publication number: 20120195406
    Abstract: An X-ray shielding member is provided so as to confront an X-ray incident face of a sample, and a gap through which an X-ray emitted from an X-ray source is passed and irradiated to an X-ray incident face of the sample is formed between the X-ray shielding member and the X-ray incident face of the sample. A gap adjusting mechanism for moving the X-ray shielding member is further provided to move the X-ray shielding member in accordance with change of an X-ray incident angle to the sample by a goniometer, whereby the breadth of the gap formed between the X-ray shielding member and the X-ray incident face of the sample can be adjusted.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 30, 2012
    Publication date: August 2, 2012
    Applicant: RIGAKU CORPORATION
    Inventors: Sigematsu Asano, Ichiro Tobita, Atsushi Ohbuchi, Takayuki Konya
  • Patent number: 8223921
    Abstract: Sensing methods and a compact, sample holding pin base sensor are provided for detecting if a sample pin is, for example, properly mounted on a goniometer used for automated, high throughput macromolecular crystallography. A first magnet is used for holding a magnetic base; a second magnet is disposed spaced apart from the first magnet. The first magnet and the second magnet have opposite orientation. A Hall-effect switch is located generally centrally between the first magnet and the second magnet. A state of the Hall-effect switch indicates if a sample pin is properly mounted on a mounting member, such as a goniometer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2012
    Assignee: UChicagoArgonne, LLC
    Inventors: Oleg Makarov, Shenglan Xu, Robert F. Fischetti
  • Publication number: 20120140889
    Abstract: A method for analysis includes directing a converging beam of X-rays toward a surface of a sample having multiple single-crystal layers, including at least a first layer and a second layer that is formed over and tilted relative to the first layer. The X-rays that are diffracted from each of the first and second layers are sensed simultaneously while resolving the sensed X-rays as a function of angle so as to generate a diffraction spectrum including at least a first diffraction peak due to the first layer and a second diffraction peak due to the second layer. The diffraction spectrum is analyzed so as to identify a characteristic of at least the second layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 2, 2010
    Publication date: June 7, 2012
    Applicant: JORDAN VALLEY SEMICONDUCTORS LTD.
    Inventors: John Wall, David Jacques, Boris Yokhin, Alexander Krokhmal, Paul Ryan, Richard Bytheway, David Berman, Matthew Wormington
  • Publication number: 20120070825
    Abstract: Disclosed are compounds of formula (I), a derivative, or a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or said tautomer. Also disclosed are methods of preparing compound of formula (I), a derivative, or a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or said tautomer. Further disclosed are methods of conducting drug discovery and research comprises applying the compound of formula (I), a derivative, or a tautomer thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of said compound or said tautomer in an investigation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 20, 2010
    Publication date: March 22, 2012
    Applicant: Sena Research, Inc.
    Inventor: Zhen Huang
  • Patent number: 8139715
    Abstract: Certain embodiments provide a method for crystallizing a GPCR. The method may employ a fusion protein comprising: a) a first portion of a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), where the first portion comprises the TM1, TM2, TM3, TM4 and TM5 regions of the GPCR; b) a stable, folded protein insertion; and c) a second portion of the GPCR, where the second portion comprises the TM6 and TM7 regions of the GPCR.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2012
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
    Inventors: Brian Kobilka, Daniel Rosenbaum
  • Patent number: 8130908
    Abstract: An x-ray diffraction apparatus for measuring crystal orientation of a multiple grain sample. An x-ray excitation path is provided having a focusing optic for collecting x-rays from an x-ray source and redirecting the collected x-rays into an x-ray beam converging on a single grain of the multiple grain sample. At least one point detector and the sample are rotated relative to each other; and a grain orientation is obtained based upon diffraction patterns collected from first and second grain crystal planes within the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2012
    Assignee: X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Huapeng Huang, Alexei Vershinin
  • Publication number: 20120051499
    Abstract: An X-ray imaging system that produces one or more fan-shaped beams is described. The system includes a target for emitting X rays that includes at least one target focal spot, and one or more graded multilayer optic devices in optical communication with the target. The optics transmits at least a portion of the source X rays to produce the one or more fan-shaped beams. The graded multilayer optic devices include at least a first graded multilayer section for redirecting and transmitting X rays through total internal reflection. The graded multilayer section includes a high-index layer of material having a first complex refractive index n1, a low-index layer of material having a second complex refractive index n2, and a grading zone disposed between the high-index and low-index layers of material. The grading zone includes a grading layer having a third complex refractive index n3 such that Re(n1)>Re(n2)>Re(n3).
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 30, 2010
    Publication date: March 1, 2012
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventors: Susanne Madeline Lee, Peter Michael Edic, Forrest Frank Hopkins
  • Patent number: 8119991
    Abstract: A calibration technique is provided that utilizes a standard sample that allows for calibration in the wavelengths of interest even when the standard sample may exhibit significant reflectance variations at those wavelengths for subtle variations in the properties of the standard sample. A second sample, a reference sample may have a relatively featureless reflectance spectrum over the same spectral region and is used in combination with the calibration sample to achieve the calibration. In one embodiment the spectral region may include the VUV spectral region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2012
    Assignee: Jordan Valley Semiconductors Ltd.
    Inventor: Dale A Harrison
  • Patent number: 8111807
    Abstract: A sample is supported on a flat rotary specimen stage and irradiated at an incidence angle ? via a divergence slit with an x-ray beam emitted by an x-ray source, the diffraction beam from the sample is received via a divergence slit and the light-receiving slit by an x-ray detector placed at the position of a diffraction angle 2? to generate diffraction beam intensity data, the x-ray incidence angle ? and diffraction angle 2? are fixed at intrinsic values on the sample, the sample is rotated within a plane at designated step angles by the flat rotary specimen stage, the diffraction beam intensity is measured by the x-ray detector in each in-plane rotation step, the variance induced by particle statistics is calculated from the calculated diffraction beam intensities, and the size of the crystallites in the sample is calculated based on the variance induced by the particle statistics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2012
    Assignee: Rigaku Corporation
    Inventors: Takashi Ida, Licai Jiang