Elemental Carbon Patents (Class 423/445R)
  • Patent number: 6162411
    Abstract: A method for the production of fullerenic nanostructures is described in which unsaturated hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combusted in a burner chamber at a sub-atmospheric pressure, thereby establishing a flame. The condensibles of the flame are collected at a post-flame location. The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. The method of producing fullerenic soot from flames is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 19, 2000
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Jack B. Howard, John B. Vander Sande, K. Das Chowdhury
  • Patent number: 6156432
    Abstract: In accordance with the present invention, lithium secondary batteries excellent in charge/discharge characteristics, in particular in charge/discharge capacity and initial efficiency, and high in safety can be provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Osaka Gas Company Limited
    Inventors: Akihiro Mabuchi, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Takahiro Kasuh, Katsuhisa Tokumitsu
  • Patent number: 6146611
    Abstract: The present invention provides an inexpensive, open cell, mechanically robust and graphitizable foam preform. The graphitizable foam is produced via a modified standard flower foam formulation. The invention provides a modified formula for such flower foams wherein a mesophase material is incorporated along with a corresponding reduction in the resole component. The mesophase material replaces 30-70% by weight (a target of 50% by weight) of the resole component of the formulation. The formulation is heated to effect foaming of the mixture, and then carbonized to produce an open cell, graphitizable foam preform.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignee: AlliedSignal Inc.
    Inventors: Frank Dillon, Charles A. Parker, Richard R. McCormick, Jonathon K. Chatwood, Mark Rigali
  • Patent number: 6146791
    Abstract: A rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a body of aprotic, non-aqueous electrolyte, first and second electrodes in effective electrochemical contact with the electrolyte, the first electrode comprising positive active cathode materials such as a lithiated intercalation compound serving as the cathode and the second electrode comprising a modified carbon material formed of a graphite or carbon based materials, for example, having a hydrogenated fullerene material, such as hydrogenated C.sub.60 or C.sub.70, adsorbed thereon and serving as the anode; whereby they provide a lithium-ion cell having improved reversible energy storage characteristics and irreversible energy loss characteristics as compared with similar lithium-ion cells having carbon anodes that are not so-modified with hydrogenated fullerene material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignee: Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corporation
    Inventors: Raouf O. Loutfy, Muhammed Y. Saleh
  • Patent number: 6143268
    Abstract: A method for making a carbonaceous material suitable for use as an electrode composition that includes contacting pyrolyzed organic material with hydrocarbon gas for a period and at a temperature sufficient to produce a carbonaceous material characterized such that when the carbonaceous material is incorporated into an electrode composition of a lithium-ion cell, the cell exhibits a reversible capacity of at least about 400 mAH/g of carbonaceous material and an irreversible capacity no greater than about 140 mAH/g of carbonaceous material, the capacities being measured up to the point of plating of metallic lithium on the surface of the carbonaceous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Assignee: 3M Innovative Properties Company
    Inventors: Jeffery R. Dahn, Eddie R. P. Buiel
  • Patent number: 6143448
    Abstract: An electrode for use in an electrolytic cell and an associated process, wherein the electrode includes a current collecting substrate, an electrode active material having at least one component including inclusions no greater than one micron within a carbon particle. The carbon particle has a dibutyl phthalate (DBP) absorption rate preferably within a range of approximately 52 ml/100 g to approximately 400 ml/100 g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Denis G. Fauteux, Jie Shi, Wlodek T. Krawiec
  • Patent number: 6139990
    Abstract: There are provided modified and rounded graphite particles derived from scaly natural graphite particles by modification so as to bring their form close to a spherical form and satisfying all the following requirements (a) to (c): (a) that the degree of circularity should be not less than 0.86; (b) that, upon microscopic observation, the broken-out section should show a cabbage-like appearance with graphite slices taking various directions; and (c) that, upon X ray diffraction, the peak intensity ratio (Ih.sub.110 /Ih.sub.002) between the 002 face (parallel to graphite layers) and 110 face (perpendicular to graphite layers), which serves as an index of the randomness of orientation, should be not less than 0.0050. They retain good qualities of the raw material scaly natural graphite particles and are additionally unique in structure and characteristics. A method of producing such modified particles is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: Kansai Netsukagaku Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Satoshi Kubota, Hirokazu Koyanagi, Kojiro Tenno, Syun Saito
  • Patent number: 6126864
    Abstract: A novel carbonaceous material having a unique periodical annular electronic surface structure as examined by means of a scanning tunnel microscopy can be obtained by the method comprising the steps of: (a) forming a layer of a carbonaceous material having a curved configuration by the method of vapor-phase deposition of a carbonaceous material; and (b) subjecting the vapor-phase deposited layer of the carbonaceous material to a heat treatment at a temperature of 1500 K or higher in a non-oxidizing atmosphere. The novel carbonaceous material is useful for carbon electrodes of various batteries.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Yokogawa, Seiji Fukuyama, Bai An, Masamichi Yoshimura, Isao Mochida
  • Patent number: 6114280
    Abstract: Disclosed are highly activated carbon particles derived from caustic digestion of rice hull ash obtained from thermal pyrolysis of rice hulls having an iodine number of at least 650 to 1000. The activated carbon pores are free of silicate residue from the caustic digestion. Also disclosed are methods of removing the silicate residue from the caustic silicate solution during digestion effective to substantially improve the activation of the carbon particles to commercial grade.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2000
    Assignee: Agritec, Inc.
    Inventor: Douglas K. Stephens
  • Patent number: 6103373
    Abstract: A carbon fiber material is substantially constituted by fiber agglomerates, having agglomerate sizes in a range of not less than 5 .mu.m and not more than 500 .mu.m, formed by vapor grown carbon fibers having a diameter of not less than 0.05 .mu.m and not more than 5 .mu.m, having a microstructure such that some fiber contact points are bonded together with substances produced by carbonizing carbonaceous matters. This carbon fiber material is used as a filler material to various matrices, and used also as an electrode material for making electrodes in batteries, especially in electric double-layer capacitors, and in secondary batteries, especially those based on lithium or lead.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2000
    Assignee: Showa Denko K.K.
    Inventors: Kunio Nishimura, Akinori Sudo, Mahito Murakami, Koro Shirane
  • Patent number: 6103149
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing and the resultant reticulated open cell carbon foam with a controlled aspect ratio between 0.6 to 1.2 throughout the body of the foam billet by controlling the exothermic reaction of the resin system below the decomposition temperature of the foam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2000
    Assignee: Ultramet
    Inventor: Edwin P. Stankiewicz
  • Patent number: 6090362
    Abstract: Free-flowing carbon and method of producing that involves combining in an aqueous medium, a thermosetting resin carbon precursor and optionally additional carbon precursor which can be petroleum and/or coal tar pitch, filler material at least when the resin is a liquid resin, and oil that is non-reactive with the thermosetting resin and the additional carbon precursor and removable during the curing or carbonizing steps, to form an aqueous mixture, followed by curing and carbonizing to produce free-flowing carbon particles or beads. The carbon can be activated to produce free-flowing activated carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Corning Incorporated
    Inventor: Kishor P. Gadkaree
  • Patent number: 6083469
    Abstract: Solid fullerite, comprising a mixture of C.sub.60 and C.sub.70 fullerenes and higher molecular weight carbon nanotropes, is produced by high temperature, short residence time, pyrolysis of a mixture of hydrocarbons, containing at least two "but less than six" carbon atoms in their molecular structures, admixed with an inert gas comprising at least one member of the Group VIII-A elements of The Periodic Table of The Elements in a substantially reduced-metals free reactor comprised of a thermally stable ceramic or pyrolytic graphite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 4, 2000
    Inventor: Harry Paul Leftin
  • Patent number: 6077401
    Abstract: A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: Midwest Research Institute
    Inventors: Clark L. Fields, John Roland Pitts, David E. King, Mary Jane Hale, Carl E. Bingham, Allan A. Lewandowski
  • Patent number: 6071613
    Abstract: A hybrid fiber reinforcing system that enhances ductility of concrete at small and large crack openings, while avoiding the necessity of using steel fibers at high (e.g., 1%) volumes, by taking into account Young's modulus, deploying large surface area to volume ratios for improved anchorage, and using different relative lengths.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2000
    Assignee: W. R. Grace & Co.-Conn.
    Inventors: Klaus Alexander Rieder, Neal S. Berke
  • Patent number: 6060424
    Abstract: The present invention relates to carbon and methods for preparing same. In particular, this invention relates to the preparation of novel carbons derived from lignocellulosic materials (particularly wood-based lignocellulosic materials) which are useful for producing high energy density double layer energy storage devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: Westvaco Corporation
    Inventor: John A. Alford
  • Patent number: 6045769
    Abstract: A method for the production of elemental carbon fibers and carbon particles uses highly uniform catalyst particles, preferably made by laser pyrolysis. Preferred catalyst particles include elemental iron, iron carbides or iron sulfides, generally with an average particle diameter from about 1000 nm to about 5 nm. Also, preferred catalyst particles have a narrow distribution in particle diameters as well as a cut off in particle size that the diameter distribution does not have a tail toward large diameters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 4, 2000
    Assignee: NanoGram Corporation
    Inventors: Nobuyuki Kambe, Xiangxin Bi
  • Patent number: 6044663
    Abstract: The present invention provides an improvement to a fiber optic draw furnace for drawing an optical fiber from a preform. The fiber optic draw furnace has a heating element having a shape for enclosing and heating the preform, and has a graphite liner having a corresponding shape to the shape of the heating element for providing a barrier between the heating element and the preform. In the fiber optic draw furnace, either the graphite liner is a high density extruded graphite liner that is impregnated with vitreous carbon completely through its entire graphite liner matrix, or the heating element is a high density extruded graphite heating element that is impregnated with vitreous carbon completely through its entire graphite heating element matrix, or both.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 4, 2000
    Assignee: Alcatel
    Inventors: Daniel D. Uhm, Robert A. Spencer
  • Patent number: 6042801
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a method for baking or calcination of shaped carbon bodies in a furnace and a packing material for use in the same. In accordance with the method, carbon bodies are burned in a furnace chamber, supported or surrounded by a packing material which is formed from a mixture of a material containing carbon and particles of a material containing silicon oxide such as crushed chamotte stone. In accordance with the method, the baking of the carbon bodies will take place at a greater temperature gradient across the packing joint than previously, which results in greater tar combustion and better utilisation of the energy in the degasified components. Furthermore, a packing material is described that contains a component containing carbon and that also contains particles containing silicon oxide in a homogeneous mixture with the component containing carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2000
    Assignee: Norsk Hydro A.S.
    Inventors: Hogne Linga, Arne Werge-Olsen, Lene Navestad Solli
  • Patent number: 6040266
    Abstract: A method of producing an acoustic baffle/catalyst foam support material and the resultant material. A polyurethane open cell foam material is provided having a density between 10-100 ppi. The polyurethane foam is infiltrated with a resin material to produce an impregnated foam. The impregnated foam is pyrolized to form a carbon skeleton forming a carbon foam. The carbon foam skeleton is coated with one or more of the following group of materials to a relative density of five to thirty five (5-35) percent, the group of materials being SiC, Si.sub.3 N.sub.4, MoSi.sub.2 or high temperature metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2000
    Assignee: Ultramet
    Inventors: Thomas F. Fay, III, Raffaele La Ferla, Andrew J. Sherman, Edwin P. Stankiewicz
  • Patent number: 6036934
    Abstract: A method of making chemically modified carbon-based materials for engineering purposes from a precursor containing graphite fluoride by using halocarbons or elemental sulfur as chemical agents that diffuse into the lamellar crystal structure of the graphite fluoride and permit defluoridation at a controlled rate upon heating, to produce graphite fluoride-free intermediate carbon material and, upon further heating to form a chemically modified non-graphitized carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Inventor: Ching-Cheh Hung
  • Patent number: 6024899
    Abstract: A method of making mesoporous carbon involves combining a carbon precursor and a pore former. At least a portion of the pore former dissolves molecularly in the carbon precursor. The pore former has a decomposition or volatilization temperature above the curing temperature and below the carbonization temperature of the carbon precursor. The carbon precursor is cured, carbonized, and optionally activated, and at the same time the pore former is removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2000
    Assignee: Corning Incorporated
    Inventors: Y. Lisa Peng, Jimmie L. Williams
  • Patent number: 6022518
    Abstract: A surface graphitized carbon material comprising a graphitic surface and a carbonaceous internal part. This surface graphitized carbon material can be produced by contacting a carbon material with a metal having catalytically graphitizing activity or a compound thereof to thereby cause the metal or compound thereof to be present in a surface of the carbon material and heating the carbon material at 300 to 1500.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2000
    Assignee: Petoca, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshinori Yamazaki, Hiroshi Ejiri
  • Patent number: 5993697
    Abstract: Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Marvin Lou Cohen, Vincent Henry Crespi, Steven Gwon Sheng Louie, Alexander Karlwalter Zettl
  • Patent number: 5985446
    Abstract: A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Inventor: Richard J. Lagow
  • Patent number: 5977016
    Abstract: Granulated activated carbon is produced by an improved process which involves carbonizing pellets of a styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer matrix with concentrated sulfuric acid at temperatures up to at least 750.degree. C., followed by activation at temperatures of 800.degree. C. to 900.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: MHB Filtration GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Hasso Von Blucher, Ernest De Ruiter
  • Patent number: 5972536
    Abstract: A negative electrode material for a secondary cell for anon-aqueous liquid electrolyte for realizing a high charging/discharging capacity and a high discharging efficiency, a method for producing such material and a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte secondary cell employing such material. The negative electrode material contains at least one carbonaceous material selected from the group consisting of coffee beans, tea leaves, cane sugar, corns, fruits, straws of cereals and husks of cereals, a carbonaceous material derived from a plant-origin high molecular material containing a sum total of 0.2 to 20 wt % of metal elements, phosphorus and sulphur calculated as elements or a carbonaceous material having a diffraction peak between 30.degree. and 32.degree. of the 2.theta. diffraction angle in the X-ray (CuK.alpha.) powder diffraction pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1999
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Shinichiro Yamada, Hiroyuki Akashi, Hiroshi Imoto, Hideto Azuma, Kenichi Kitamura, Momoe Adachi, Terue Sasaki, Kohichi Tanaka
  • Patent number: 5972506
    Abstract: An intercalation compound of general formula Na.sub.x K.sub.1-X Z.sub.y, wherein Z is a carbon or a polymer with a cyclic, particularly aromatic unit, as base unit; 0<x<1; and 2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.6. A method for preparing the compound is also described, as well as the use thereof, particularly in pyrotechnics and in lithium batteries.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1999
    Assignee: Etienne LaCroix Tous Artifices S.A.
    Inventors: Genevieve Leichter, Jean-Claude Gachon, Daniel Guerard
  • Patent number: 5968471
    Abstract: A process for producing a molecular sieve carbon, which comprises subjecting a cured product obtained by curing a raw material thermosetting resin to heat oxidation; pulverizing the oxidized product formed after the heat oxidation treatment; granulating the resulting pulverized product; subjecting the resulting granule to carbonization; subjecting the carbonized charcoal obtained in the carbonizing step to heat treatment; and adjusting the pore size of the heat-treated carbonized charcoal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignee: Nippon Sanso Corporation
    Inventors: Katsuyoshi Yanagita, Masayoshi Hayashida
  • Patent number: 5965297
    Abstract: An electrode for use in an electrolytic cell and an associated process, wherein the electrode includes a current collecting substrate, an electrode active material having at least one component including inclusions no greater than one micron within a carbon particle. The electrode includes degradation preclusion mean which comprise the inclusions having a volumetric variation which is less than the maximum elasticity of the associated carbon particle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Assignee: Mitsubhish Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Denis G. Fanteux, Jie Shi, Wlodek Krawiec
  • Patent number: 5965267
    Abstract: A method for the production of carbon encapsulated nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and other closed carbon structures, including contacting a catalyst of a transition metal, or a compound or alloy thereof, with a gas mixture containing carbon monoxide, and an amount of available molecular hydrogen which is insufficient to cause formation of graphite plane edges through capping, at a temperature in the range from 300-1000.degree. C., to provide closed carbon structures, which are useful in the preparation of thermal composites, reinforcement composites and magnetic particle recording media.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Assignee: Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona
    Inventors: Peter E. Nolan, Andrew H. Cutler, David G. Lynch
  • Patent number: 5965055
    Abstract: A plurality of processes for producing unique end products containing elemental metals or metal oxides on and in a carbon substrate, elemental metals or metal oxides in the absence of such a carbon substrate, mixtures of elemental metals or metal oxides on and in a carbon substrate, or mixtures of elemental metals or metal oxides in the absence of such a carbon substrate, all of which processes involve the preparation of a first-step intermediate product that is a carbonaceous material appearing to be non-graphitic by X-ray diffraction standards and containing metal and halogen, which intermediate product is made from graphite fluoride and an appropriate metal halide. Among the end products are aluminum oxide fibers, elemental iron fibers, magnetic carbon fibers containing either iron or an iron-nickel alloy, and carbon containing various metals in the form of elemental metal or oxides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Inventor: Ching-Cheh Hung
  • Patent number: 5961814
    Abstract: An improved process for the preparation of a pitch foam with a microcellular structure and a uniform pore size comprises the steps of (a) pressing a quantity of a pitch to provide a pressed article, (b) placing the pressed article in a pressure vessel, (c) introducing an inert gas into the pressure vessel under an elevated pressure of about 200 to 500 psi, (d) heating the pressed article within the pressure vessel to about 10.degree. to 40.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Inventor: Kristen M. Kearns
  • Patent number: 5958831
    Abstract: SiC foam-based catalyst carrier in the form of a moulded part having walls reinforced with a SiC skin having mechanical characteristics higher than those of the foam, this skin allowing the carrier to be handled and used without damage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: Pechiney Recherche
    Inventors: Marie Prin, Benoit Ollivier, Airy Pierre Lamaze
  • Patent number: 5958622
    Abstract: A negative electrode material capable of absorbing and desorbing lithium is comprised of a mixture of coke and graphite. The amount of graphite in the mixture is near to that which induces percolation transition. Preferably, the amount of graphite in the mixture is 2 to 37 wt % relative to the total amount of the coke and graphite. The coke may be prepared by heating raw coke from oil or coal at 500 to 900.degree. C. The coke may be 0.06 or more in the atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon and 0.003 or more in the atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon. The graphite may be 0.5 .mu.m to 30 .mu.m in a mean particle size. Lithium secondary batteries comprising the negative electrodes have a large discharge capacity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho
    Inventors: Yoshitsugu Kojima, Akihiko Koiwai, Nobuaki Suzuki, Satoru Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5955375
    Abstract: A graphite of anisotrophy selected between substantially isotropic to highly anisotropic, or calcined coke graphitizable to such a graphite, or a pitch convertible into such a coke or graphite, is derived from bituminous coal. A first coal is extracted in NMP or like solvent to give a first extract that when carbonized alone produces a substantially isotropic coke. A second coal (the same or different as the first coal) is hydrogenated and similarly extracted to give a second extract. The extent of hydrogenation is controlled so that the second extract when carbonized alone produces a highly anisotropic coke. Test samples are prepared by combining the two extracts in differing ratios including one sample in a ratio at each range end of the range. The solids of each sample are recovered, carbonized into coke, and then optionally converted into graphite, and its degree of anisotrophy analyzed. Comparison of the analyzed degrees for the different coke or graphite samples gives an correlation (e. g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1999
    Inventors: John W. Zondlo, Peter G. Stansberry, Alfred H. Stiller
  • Patent number: 5945084
    Abstract: This pertains to the general field of gels, foams, and aerogels, particularly, to low density open cell organic foams and low density open cell carbon foams, and methods for preparing them. These low density open cell organic foams are derived from organic gels which may be prepared from hydroxylated benzenes (such as phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, and phloroglucinol) and aldehydes (such as formaldehyde and furfural) using lower than conventional catalyst concentrations (e.g, an R/C value of greater than about 1000, yielding an initial room temperature pH typically lower than about 6.0). These organic foams are characterized by relatively large particle and pore sizes, high porosity, and high surface area. Low density open cell carbon foams derived from such organic foams are also shown, as are methods for preparing same. These carbon foams are also characterized by relatively large particle and pore sizes, high porosity, high surface area, and high electrical capacitance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignee: Ocellus, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael W. Droege
  • Patent number: 5932185
    Abstract: A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1999
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Richard W. Pekala, Steven T. Mayer, James L. Kaschmitter, Robert L. Morrison
  • Patent number: 5932349
    Abstract: A substrate for magnetic recording medium, consisting essentially of a vitreous carbon produced from a polycarbodiimide resin; and a process for producing a substrate for magnetic recording medium, which comprise molding into an appropriate shape a polycarbodiimide resin or a composition mainly comprising a polycarbodiimide resin, carbonizing the shaped material, and processing the carbonized shaped material into a substrate for magnetic recording medium.Said substrate for magnetic recording medium is free from the problems of the prior art, is lightweight and thin, has excellent mechanical strengths and a smooth and dense surface having substantially no pore, and can be produced at a low cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1999
    Assignee: Nisshinbo Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Kazuo Saito, Takeshi Ishimatsu
  • Patent number: 5925465
    Abstract: A novel carbon material is obtained by bending at least one carbon atom layer of graphite in at least one selected region along either, or both, of lines I and II in FIG. 1. The bending can be accomplished by scanningly picking the carbon atom layer(s) with a probe of an atomic force microscope or another scanning microscope. The obtained carbon material has at least one round bend having a width of 0.1-10 nm and at least one flap region having a triangular, rectangular or still differently polygonal shape in plan view. When the carbon atom layer(s) is bent with very small radii of curvature, a finely striped ridge-and-groove structure appears in the round bend. The physical properties of the obtained carbon material are uniquely determined by the direction(s) of bending, width of each bend, shape and size of each flap region and the stripe pitch of the ridge-and-groove structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas Ebbesen, Hidefumi Hiura, Katsumi Tanigaki
  • Patent number: 5925591
    Abstract: A process for manufacturing a bundle of hollow carbon membranes comprising the steps of: (a) providing a bundle of hollow cellulose fibers; (b) removing substantially all the absorbed water from the said fibers; (c) heating the fibers to a range of temperatures where it pyrolyzes; (d) supplying to the said fibers, during at least part of the heating thereof and after the water has been removed, a catalytically effective amount of a gaseous catalyst selected from among Lewis acids, and ionic salts that are at least partially volatile at the pyrolysis temperature range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignees: Rotem Industries Ltd., AGA Aktiebolag
    Inventors: Abraham Soffer, Jack Gilron, Shlomo Saguee, Rafael Hed-Ofek, Haim Cohen
  • Patent number: 5919589
    Abstract: Disclosed is a rechargeable battery comprising an anode, a separator, a cathode, an electrolyte, and a battery housing accommodating the members, the battery being of a type utilizing intercalating and deintercalating reactions of lithium ions as charging and discharging reactions of the battery. The anode comprises a host material for allowing lithium ions to intercalate therein upon conducting the charging, and the host material comprises a carbonous material containing a crystalline portion in which a graphite structure is developed and an amorphous portion in which the graphite structure is not developed. The crystalline portion and the amorphous portion of the carbonous material exhibit two or more of peaks in a region of 2.theta.=22-27.degree. based on the (002) face on a chart obtained by X-ray wide angle diffraction using CuK .alpha.-rays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Soichiro Kawakami, Naoya Kabayashi, Masaya Asao
  • Patent number: 5906900
    Abstract: Disclosed are an electrode material for a non-aqueous solvent secondary battery, which comprises a composite carbonaceous material in which to the surface of a graphite carbonaceous material is attached a carbonized material of an organic substance in an amount to give a carbon residue of 12 parts by weight or less and 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1999
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Manabu Hayashi, Shoji Yamaguchi, Fumikazu Mizutani, Keiko Nishioka, Shoichiro Mori
  • Patent number: 5902562
    Abstract: A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1999
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Robert R. Lagasse, John L. Schroeder
  • Patent number: 5900189
    Abstract: The present invention provides a needle coke for graphite electrodes, wherein a needle coke, used as a raw material coke, comprises a coke of 100 parts by weight, to which adheres a substance of 0.03 to 16 parts by weight having a softening point, or a melting point, or a temperature at which it thermally decomposes without leaving a residue (after subjecting it to a heat treatment at 200.degree. C. or higher), which does not exceed 1800.degree. C., which substance comprises preferably 0.05 to 5 parts by weight of at least one boron, phosphorus or silicon compound, or pyrex glass. Also provided is a process for producing the needle coke. The use of the above needle coke in producing graphite electrodes can effectively inhibit puffing in a graphitizing step and improve the yield of the electrodes as well as enhancing product characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 4, 1999
    Assignee: Nippon Steel Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Youichi Kawano, Tsutomu Setou, Takanori Nishihata
  • Patent number: 5891822
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a process for producing active carbon suitable for use in electrodes for an organic solvent type electric double layer capacitor, comprising calcining an easily graphitizable organic substance and then subjecting the resultant carbonized product to an alkali activation treatment, wherein the alkali activation treatment comprises a first alkali activation treatment at a temperature within a first range and a second alkali activation treatment at a temperature within a second range, said temperature within the second range being higher than that of the first activation treatment, and one of both alkali activation treatments is performed after the other alkali activation treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1999
    Assignee: Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shigeki Oyama, Naohiko Oki, Minoru Noguchi
  • Patent number: 5888469
    Abstract: A method of making anisotropic carbon foam material includes de-ashing and hydrogenating bituminous coal, separating asphaltenes from oils contained in the coke precursor, coking the material to create a carbon foam. In one embodiment of the invention, the carbon foam is subsequently graphitized. The pores within the foam material are preferably generally of equal size. The pore size and carbon foam material density may be controlled by (a) altering the percentage volatiles contained within the asphaltenes to be coked, (b) mixing the asphaltenes with different coking precursors which are isotropic in nature, or (c) modifying the pressure under which coking is effected. In another embodiment of the invention, solvent separation is employed on raw bituminous coal and an isotropic carbon foam is provided. A related carbon foam product is disclosed. The carbon foam materials of the present invention are characterized by having high compressive strength as compared with prior known carbon foam materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 30, 1999
    Assignee: West Virginia University
    Inventors: Alfred H. Stiller, Peter G. Stansberry, John W. Zondlo
  • Patent number: 5882621
    Abstract: A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1999
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Narayan Doddapaneni, James C. F. Wang, Robert W. Crocker, David Ingersoll, David W. Firsich
  • Patent number: 5880061
    Abstract: Active carbon having a pore size distribution obtained from a nitrogen adsorption isothermal line such that the volume of pores having a pore diameter of less than 15 .ANG. is at least 0.25 ml/g and constitutes at least 40% of the total volume of pores having a pore diameter of at most 300 .ANG., and the volume of pores having a pore diameter of from 100 to 300 .ANG. constitutes at least 10% of the total volume of pores having a pore diameter of at most 300 .ANG..
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 9, 1999
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshio Yoshino, Atsushi Matsumoto, Kimitoshi Ohishi, Akihide Yoshida
  • Patent number: 5877935
    Abstract: An active carbon suitable for use in electrodes for an organic solvent type electric double layer capacitor, which is obtained by calcining an easily graphitizable organic substance and then activating the resultant carbonized product with an alkali, wherein a mode in the pore size distribution of the active carbon according to a transmission electron microscope (TEM) image analysis method falls within a range of 10-20 angstroms, and an conjunctive pore rate, which is expressed by a proportion of the total area of pores having an area not smaller than 500 square angstroms to the whole pore area in the TEM image, is at least 20%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1999
    Assignee: Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki-Kaisha
    Inventors: Kenji Sato, Minoru Noguchi, Naohiko Oki, Shigeki Oyama