Metal Containing Compound Produced Patents (Class 205/477)
  • Patent number: 10378033
    Abstract: The present application relates to reaction mixtures comprising biomass, a solid acid catalyst and cellulolytic enzymes or organisms expressing such enzymes for converting biomass to useful feedstocks and methods of forming products via fermentation using the said reaction mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2019
    Assignee: BASF Corporation
    Inventors: Haowen Xu, Sharad Mathur, Karin Arens
  • Patent number: 9540738
    Abstract: Both the reaction of hydride-forming compositions with hydrogen to form hydrides, and the decomposition of such hydrides to release hydrogen may be promoted electrochemically. These reactions may be conducted reversibly, and if performed in a suitable cell, the cell will serve as a hydrogen storage and release device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2017
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: John J. Vajo, Wen Li, Ping Liu, Frederick E. Pinkerton
  • Patent number: 9228267
    Abstract: Fluidized-bed reactors for producing alane are provided herein. An exemplary process includes inducing a negative electrical potential in an electrolyte solution to produce an anolyte solution that includes an alane adduct, wherein the negative electrical potential is generated between anode aluminum particles and cathode aluminum particles, the electrolyte solution including sodium aluminum hydride dissolved in a solvent, the anode aluminum particles and cathode aluminum particles being separated by a diaphragm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2016
    Assignee: Ardica Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Steven Crouch-Baker
  • Publication number: 20150076082
    Abstract: Systems and methods are described that facilitate generating and storing a concentrated copper and silver ion solution for treating a remote water volume (e.g., a pool, fountain, hot tub, cooling tower, etc.), in accordance with various features described herein. Citric acid and a water-soluble binding polymer are added to a volume of water. The intermediate solution is circulated past an ion generator for a predetermined time period, and copper ions generated thereby are bound by the binding polymer and/or chelated by the citric acid. Once a desired concentration of copper ions has been achieved, the concentrated solution is stored in portable vessels for transport to the remote water volume. Concentrated solution is added to the remote water volume to achieve a concentration therein of approximately 0.2-0.3 ppm.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 21, 2014
    Publication date: March 19, 2015
    Inventor: George Loucaides
  • Publication number: 20140346055
    Abstract: Coaxial disk armatures, counter-rotating through an axial magnetic field, act as electrolysis electrodes and high shear centrifugal impellers for an axial feed. The feed can be carbon dioxide, water, methane, or other substances requiring electrolysis. Carbon dioxide and water can be processed into syngas and ozone continuously, enabling carbon and oxygen recycling at power plants. Within the space between the counter-rotating disk electrodes, a shear layer comprising a fractal tree network of radial vortices provides sink flow conduits for light fractions, such as syngas, radially inward while the heavy fractions, such as ozone and elemental carbon flow radially outward in boundary layers against the disks and beyond the disk periphery, where they are recovered as valuable products, such as carbon nanotubes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 13, 2014
    Publication date: November 27, 2014
    Inventors: Wilmot H. McCutchen, David J. McCutchen
  • Publication number: 20140318982
    Abstract: A method is described of preparing a tin-silver (Sn—Ag) alloy plating solution containing methanesulfonic acid tin, methanesulfonic acid silver, methanesulfonic acid, and an additive, wherein the method includes: (a) eliminating impurities such as released chloride compounds and released sulfur compounds, which are present in the methanesulfonic acid, (b) preparing the methanesulfonic acid tin and the methanesulfonic acid silver by dissolving, through an electrolytic process, tin and silver in the methanesulfonic acid from which the impurities are eliminated; (c) producing a mixture solution by adding the methanesulfonic acid, the methanesulfonic acid tin, the methanesulfonic acid silver, and the additive; and (d) filtering the mixture solution. And by the method thereof, current efficiency may be increased and a desirable plating film may be maintained by eliminating the impurities from the methanesulfonic acid used as a base material and preparing the Sn—Ag alloy plating solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 6, 2012
    Publication date: October 30, 2014
    Inventors: Dong Hyun Kim, Tae Jo Bang, Jeong Hun Oh, Jin Ho Son, Hong Ki Kim, Jeong Dae Kim, Jeong Nan Yuk
  • Publication number: 20140262813
    Abstract: Both the reaction of hydride-forming compositions with hydrogen to form hydrides, and the decomposition of such hydrides to release hydrogen may be promoted electrochemically. These reactions may be conducted reversibly, and if performed in a suitable cell, the cell will serve as a hydrogen storage and release device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 27, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: John J. Vajo, Wen Li, Ping Liu, Frederick E. Pinkerton
  • Publication number: 20140262811
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a method for producing metal-containing particles, the method comprising subjecting an aqueous solution comprising a metal salt, Eh, lowering reducing agent, pH adjusting agent, and water to conditions that maintain the Eh value of the solution within the bounds of an Eh-pH stability field corresponding to the composition of the metal-containing particles to be produced, and producing said metal-containing particles in said aqueous solution at a selected Eh value within the bounds of said Eh-pH stability field. The invention is also directed to the resulting metal-containing particles as well as devices in which they are incorporated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Inventors: Ji-Won Moon, Hyunsung Jung, Tommy Joe Phelps, JR., Chad E. Duty, Ilia N. Ivanov, Pooran Chandra Joshi, Gerald Earle Jellison, JR., Beth Louise Armstrong, Sean Campbell Smith, Adam Justin Rondinone, Lonnie J. Love
  • Publication number: 20140262810
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a method for producing metal-containing (e.g., non-oxide, oxide, or elemental) nano-objects, which may be nanoparticles or nanowires, the method comprising contacting an aqueous solution comprising a metal salt and water with an electrically powered electrode to form said metal-containing nano-objects dislodged from the electrode, wherein said electrode possesses a nanotextured surface that functions to confine the particle growth process to form said metal-containing nano-objects. The invention is also directed to the resulting metal-containing compositions as well as devices in which they are incorporated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: UT-Battelle, LLC
    Inventors: Adam Justin Rondinone, Ilia N. Ivanov, Sean Campbell Smith, Chengdu Liang, Dale K. Hensley, Ji-Won Moon, Tommy Joe Phelps
  • Publication number: 20140238870
    Abstract: A method is provided of regenerating solvents used to remove gaseous contaminants from gaseous mixtures of various compositions with significantly reduced energy required, where one exemplary method includes directing a solution with the solvents and the preferentially absorbed and/or dissolved gaseous contaminants through a filter comprising a membrane having pre-determined diffusion rates so that a substantial portion of the gaseous contaminants pass through the filter, permitting the passage of the gaseous contaminants through the membrane for further processing, and recirculating the separated solvent so that it may be used again to remove new gaseous contaminants. In some cases, it may be desired to permit some of the solvent to pass through the membrane along with the gaseous contaminant.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 6, 2014
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Inventor: Subramanian Iyer
  • Publication number: 20140008240
    Abstract: This invention is an apparatus and a method for continuously generating a hydride gas of M1 which is substantially free of oxygen in a divided electrochemical cell. An impermeable partition or a combination of an impermeable partition and a porous diaphragm can be used to divide the electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell has an anode chamber and a cathode chamber, wherein the cathode chamber has a cathode comprising M1, the anode chamber has an anode comprising M2 and is capable of generating oxygen, an aqueous electrolyte solution comprising a hydroxide M3OH partially filling the divided electrochemical cell. Hydride gas generated in the cathode chamber and oxygen generated in the anode chamber are removed through independent outlets. M1 can be selenium, phosphorous, silicon, metal or metal alloy, M2 is metal or metal alloy suitable for anonic oxygen generation, and M3 is NH4 or an alkali or alkaline earth metal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2012
    Publication date: January 9, 2014
    Applicant: AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS, INC.
    Inventor: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
  • Patent number: 8608935
    Abstract: One embodiment of the invention includes an electrochemical cell and an externally applied electrical potential used to drive a direct synthesis reaction to produce alane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2013
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: John J. Vajo, Ping Liu
  • Patent number: 8591720
    Abstract: A method for generating hydride gas of metal M1 in electrochemical cell comprising cathode comprising metal M1, sacrificial anode comprising metal M2, an initial concentration of aqueous electrolyte solution comprising metal hydroxide M3OH, wherein the sacrificial metal anode electrochemically oxidizes in the presence of the aqueous electrolyte solution to form metal salt, and hydride gas of metal M1 is formed by reducing the metal M1 of the cathode. The method also comprises steps of determining solubility profile curves of metal salt as M3OH is consumed and metal oxide is formed by oxidation reaction at various concentrations of M3OH; determining the maximum concentration of M3OH that does not yield a concentration of metal salt that precipitates out of the electrolyte solution; and choosing a concentration of M3OH that is in the range of at and within 5% less than the maximum concentration of M3OH to be the initial concentration of M3OH.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Reinaldo Mario Machado, Christopher L. Hartz, James E. Hollen, Rebecca J. Mohr, George L. Ryals
  • Patent number: 8470156
    Abstract: A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH3. The AlH3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH3 generation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC
    Inventor: Ragaiy Zidan
  • Publication number: 20120205252
    Abstract: A method for generating hydride gas of metal M1 in electrochemical cell comprising cathode comprising metal M1, sacrificial anode comprising metal M2, an initial concentration of aqueous electrolyte solution comprising metal hydroxide M3OH, wherein the sacrificial metal anode electrochemically oxidizes in the presence of the aqueous electrolyte solution to form metal salt, and hydride gas of metal M1 is formed by reducing the metal M1 of the cathode. The method also comprises steps of determining solubility profile curves of metal salt as M3OH is consumed and metal oxide is formed by oxidation reaction at various concentrations of M3OH; determining the maximum concentration of M3OH that does not yield a concentration of metal salt that precipitates out of the electrolyte solution; and choosing a concentration of M3OH that is in the range of at and within 5% less than the maximum concentration of M3OH to be the initial concentration of M3OH.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 12, 2011
    Publication date: August 16, 2012
    Applicant: AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS, INC.
    Inventors: Reinaldo Mario Machado, Christopher L. Hartz, James E. Hollen, Rebecca J. Mohr, George L. Ryals
  • Publication number: 20120189514
    Abstract: The invention covers the combination of utilizing the selectivity of an adsorbent to remove species from a liquid containing mixtures of ions and then subjecting the loaded resin to a chromatographic displacement utilizing the most selectively adsorbed species to displace the undesired co-adsorbing impurities. The technique can be used even when the most selectively adsorbed species is present as a minor constituent in the feed solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 23, 2011
    Publication date: July 26, 2012
    Inventor: Gordon Rossiter
  • Publication number: 20120160700
    Abstract: Modular cathode assemblies are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include a basket through which fluid electrolyte may pass and exchange charge with a material to be reduced in the basket. The basket can be divided into upper and lower sections to provide entry for the material. Example embodiment cathode assemblies may have any shape to permit modular placement at any position in reduction systems. Modular cathode assemblies include a cathode plate in the basket, to which unique and opposite electrical power may be supplied. Example embodiment modular cathode assemblies may have standardized electrical connectors. Modular cathode assemblies may be supported by a top plate of an electrolytic reduction system. Electrolytic oxide reduction systems are operated by positioning modular cathode and anode assemblies at desired positions, placing a material in the basket, and charging the modular assemblies to reduce the metal oxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 23, 2010
    Publication date: June 28, 2012
    Applicant: GE-HITACHI NUCLEAR ENERGY AMERICAS LLC
    Inventors: Stanley G. Wiedmeyer, Laurel A. Barnes, Mark A. Williamson, James L. Willit
  • Patent number: 8202405
    Abstract: There is disclosed an inlet and outlet end-box design for mercury cathode chlor-alkali electrolysis cells of extended lifetime, comprising a composite mechanical structure consisting of a carbon steel bottom entirely supporting the mechanical solicitations, a plastic cover, and a hydraulic head device for washing the mercury and the amalgam. The device is partially extractable thereby allowing the withdrawal of foreign materials accumulated during operation with no need for opening the end-boxes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2012
    Assignee: Industrie de Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Giovanni Meneghini, Raffaello Bertin
  • Publication number: 20110303551
    Abstract: An electrochemical system comprising a cathode electrolyte comprising added carbon dioxide and contacting a cathode; and a first cation exchange membrane separating the cathode electrolyte from an anode electrolyte contacting an anode; and an electrochemical method comprising adding carbon dioxide into a cathode electrolyte separated from an anode electrolyte by a first cation exchange membrane; and producing an alkaline solution in the cathode electrolyte and an acid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 13, 2011
    Publication date: December 15, 2011
    Inventors: RYAN J. GILLIAM, VALENTIN DECKER, NIGEL ANTONY KNOTT, MICHAEL KOSTOWSKYJ, BRYAN BOGGS
  • Publication number: 20110272290
    Abstract: Embodiments of methods for electrochemical analysis of arsenic are described. In one embodiment, a method includes detecting arsenic (III) by, at least in part, applying electrolytic current to an arsenic compound that has not been reduced with a reducing agent. In another embodiment, a method for electrochemical analysis of arsenic includes detecting arsenic (V) by, at least in part, applying electrolytic current to an arsenic compound that has not been reduced with a reducing agent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2011
    Publication date: November 10, 2011
    Inventors: Purnendu K. Dasgupta, Mrinal K. Sengupta
  • Patent number: 8021536
    Abstract: A method for generating a hydride gas of metal M1 in an electrochemical cell comprising a cathode comprising metal M1, a sacrificial anode comprising metal M2, an initial concentration of aqueous electrolyte solution comprising a metal hydroxide, M3OH, wherein the sacrificial metal anode electrochemically oxidizes in the presence of the aqueous electrolyte solution comprising M3OH to form a metal salt, and the hydride gas of metal M1 is formed by reducing the metal M1 of the cathode. The method comprises the steps of determining solubility profile curves of the metal salt as the M3OH is consumed and the metal oxide is formed by the oxidation reaction at various concentrations of M3OH; determining a maximum concentration of M3OH that, as it is consumed, does not yield a concentration of metal salt that precipitates out of the electrolyte solution; and choosing a concentration of M3OH that is in the range of at and within 5% less than the maximum concentration of M3OH to be the initial concentration of M3OH.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemical, Inc.
    Inventors: Reinaldo Mario Machado, Christopher L. Hartz, James E. Hollen, Rebecca J. Mohr, George L. Ryals
  • Patent number: 8021533
    Abstract: A candidate hydrogen storage material, M, capable of reaction with hydrogen to form a hydride, MHm (m=number of H atoms per formula unit), and to subsequently release hydrogen on demand, is processed electrochemically to enhance its absorption/desorption properties. For example, a magnesium hydride (MgH2) composition, arranged as a positive electrode, is reduced with lithium ions in a direct current electrolytic cell to form nanometer-size particles of magnesium (and lithium hydride). The cell operation may be reversed to oxidize magnesium to nanometer size particles of magnesium hydride. Thereafter, the nanometer-size particles of M/MHm adsorb and desorb hydrogen at higher yields and under more moderate storage processing conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignees: GM Global Technology Operations LLC, Universite de Picardie, Jules Verne
    Inventors: Gholam-Abbas Nazri, Luc M. A. Aymard, Yassine Oumellal, Aline Dominique Rougier, Jean-Marie Tarascon
  • Patent number: 7857953
    Abstract: The present invention provides an oxygen-reduction gas diffusion cathode having: a porous conductive substrate; diamond particle having a hydrophobic surface; and catalyst particle, the diamond particle and the catalyst particle being disposed on the porous conductive substrate, and a method of sodium chloride electrolysis using the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2010
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Yuji Yamada, Yuki Izawa, Masaharu Uno, Yoshinori Nishiki, Tsuneto Furuta
  • Publication number: 20100252444
    Abstract: One embodiment of the invention includes an electrochemical cell and an externally applied electrical potential used to drive a direct synthesis reaction to produce alane.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2007
    Publication date: October 7, 2010
    Applicant: GM Global Technology Operations, Inc.
    Inventors: John J. Vajo, Ping Liu
  • Publication number: 20100210453
    Abstract: A method for the preparation of materials comprises the steps of: a) taking a first material comprising a compound of a first metal or of a first metal alloy, b) inserting said first material into an electrochemical cell as a first electrode, the electrochemical cell including a second electrode including a second metal different from a metal incorporated in the first material and an electrolyte adapted to transport the second metal to the first electrode and insert it into the first material by a current flowing in an external circuit resulting in the formation of a compound of the second metal in the first electrode material, the method being characterized by the step of treating the first electrode material after formation of the compound of the second metal to chemically remove at least some of the compound of the second metal to leave a material with a nanoporous structure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2007
    Publication date: August 19, 2010
    Applicant: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Wissenschaften e.V.
    Inventors: Yong-Sheng Hu, Yu-Guo Guo, Palani Balaya, Joachim Maier, Sarmimala Hore
  • Patent number: 7749476
    Abstract: Provided are methods for producing carbonate-containing compositions comprising silicon-based material (e.g., pozzolanic material) from a source of carbon dioxide, a divalent cation-containing solution, and a source of proton-removing agents. In such methods, divalent cations of the divalent cation-containing solution are provided by digestion of material comprising metal silicates. Also provided are methods for producing carbonate-containing compositions comprising little or no silicon-based material. In such methods, silicon-based material (e.g., silica, unreacted or undigested silicates, aluminosilicates, etc.) may be separated and processed separately from carbonate-containing compositions. Silicon-based material and carbonate-containing material may be blended at a later stage to produce a pozzolanic material, which may be further processed and blended with, for example, Portland cement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 6, 2010
    Assignee: Calera Corporation
    Inventors: Brent R. Constantz, Laurence Clodic, Cecily Ryan, Miguel Fernandez, Kasra Farsad, Sidney Omelon, Philip Tuet, Paulo Monteiro, Gordon E. Brown, Jr., Katharine Geramita
  • Publication number: 20090127129
    Abstract: A candidate hydrogen storage material, M, capable of reaction with hydrogen to form a hydride, MHm (m=number of H atoms per formula unit), and to subsequently release hydrogen on demand, is processed electrochemically to enhance its absorption/desorption properties. For example, a magnesium hydride (MgH2) composition, arranged as a positive electrode, is reduced with lithium ions in a direct current electrolytic cell to form nanometer-size particles of magnesium (and lithium hydride). The cell operation may be reversed to oxidize magnesium to nanometer size particles of magnesium hydride. Thereafter, the nanometer-size particles of M/MHm adsorb and desorb hydrogen at higher yields and under more moderate storage processing conditions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Publication date: May 21, 2009
    Applicants: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS, INC., UNIVERSITY OF PICARDIE
    Inventors: Gholam-Abbas Nazri, Luc M.A. Aymard, Yassine Oumellal, Aline Dominique Rougier, Jean-Marie Tarascon
  • Publication number: 20090123751
    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for producing fine particles of a salt, hydroxide or oxide, wherein when producing the salt, hydroxide or oxide by electrodialysis using anion exchange membranes and cation exchange membranes, a conductive liquid acting as a poor solvent for the salt, hydroxide or oxide which is produced in a concentration chamber is used as a concentration chamber solution, as well as the fine particles of the salt, hydroxide or oxide which are produced by the above process.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 23, 2006
    Publication date: May 14, 2009
    Applicant: NISSHINBO INDRSTRIES, INC.
    Inventors: Shinichi Horiguchi, Yasuhiro Ooshima, Jyunichi Arizono
  • Publication number: 20090038954
    Abstract: A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH3. The AlH3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH3 generation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 9, 2007
    Publication date: February 12, 2009
    Applicant: Washington Savannah River Company LLC
    Inventor: Ragaiy Zidan
  • Publication number: 20090035852
    Abstract: Stable atomic quantum clusters, AQCs, characterized by being composed of at least 500 metal atoms, its production process characterized by having a kinetic control and by maintaining a low concentration of reagents in the reaction medium, as well as the uses of these clusters as sensors (fluorescent, magnetic or chemical), electrocatalysts and as cytostatics and/or cytotoxics.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 28, 2006
    Publication date: February 5, 2009
    Applicant: UNIVERSIDADE DE SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA
    Inventors: Manuel Arturo Lopez Quintela, Jose Rivas Rey
  • Publication number: 20080308414
    Abstract: There is disclosed an inlet and outlet end-box design for mercury cathode chlor-alkali electrolysis cells of extended lifetime, comprising a composite mechanical structure consisting of a carbon steel bottom entirely supporting the mechanical solicitations, a plastic cover, and a hydraulic head device for washing the mercury and the amalgam. The device is partially extractable thereby allowing the withdrawal of foreign materials accumulated during operation with no need for opening the end-boxes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 20, 2008
    Publication date: December 18, 2008
    Applicant: Industrie De Nora S. p. A.
    Inventors: Giovanni Meneghini, Raffaello Bertin
  • Publication number: 20070240997
    Abstract: A method for generating a hydride gas of metal M1 in an electrochemical cell comprising a cathode comprising metal M1, a sacrificial anode comprising metal M2, an initial concentration of aqueous electrolyte solution comprising a metal hydroxide, M3OH, wherein the sacrificial metal anode electrochemically oxidizes in the presence of the aqueous electrolyte solution comprising M3OH to form a metal salt, and the hydride gas of metal M1 is formed by reducing the metal M1 of the cathode. The method comprises the steps of determining solubility profile curves of the metal salt as the M3OH is consumed and the metal oxide is formed by the oxidation reaction at various concentrations of M3OH; determining a maximum concentration of M3OH that, as it is consumed, does not yield a concentration of metal salt that precipitates out of the electrolyte solution; and choosing a concentration of M3OH that is in the range of at and within 5% less than the maximum concentration of M3OH to be the initial concentration of M3OH.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 19, 2007
    Publication date: October 18, 2007
    Inventors: Reinaldo Mario Machado, Christopher L. Hartz, James E. Hollen, Rebecca J. Mohr, George L. Ryals
  • Publication number: 20040159556
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for preparing a zinc dithionite solution wherein the process comprises reacting an aqueous slurry of zinc particles with sulfur dioxide in presence of a promoter compound. The zinc particles can either be a commercial particulate zinc material or a particulate zinc material prepared by electrolyzing an aqueous alkaline suspension or slurry containing zinc based species. The addition of the promoter compound significantly increases the conversion of zinc to zinc dithionite and significantly reduces the cycle time of the reaction. The promoter compound is selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide and metal compounds. The promoter metal compounds are selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal hydroxide, zinc oxide, zinc sulfite, zinc bisulfite, zinc metabisulfite, an alkali metal zincate, an alkali metal sulfite, an alkali metal bisulfite, and mixtures thereof.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 13, 2003
    Publication date: August 19, 2004
    Applicant: Clariant International Ltd.
    Inventor: Baldev K. Bandlish
  • Publication number: 20030159942
    Abstract: A method for the electrochemical production of ferrate salts in an aqueous electrolyte solution comprising one or more hydroxide components. Dramatically increased yields of ferrate salts are obtained from using a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Preferably, both sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are present in concentrations greater than 5 molar, most preferably at least 10 molar, i.e., 10 M NaOH and 10 M KOH. The anode is preferably a sacrificial anode made out of an iron-containing material to supply the iron necessary for the ferrate production reaction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 27, 2002
    Publication date: August 28, 2003
    Inventors: Zoran Minevski, Jason Maxey, Carl Nelson, Dylan Taylor
  • Patent number: 6528182
    Abstract: The invention concerns a steel plate coated with a metal layer based on zinc and a zinc hydroxysulphate layer, whereof the surface density of sulphur is more than 0.5 mg/m2. The invention also concerns a method for obtaining said plate by treating a zinc coated sheet metal: either in a highly alkaline sulphate solution under polarization; or in a sulphate solution containing Zn2+ ions without polarization. The hydroxysulphate deposit brings about a pre-lubricating effect applicable to operations for forming sheet metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2003
    Assignee: Sollac
    Inventors: Alain Bello, Sylviane Wajda, Jacques Petitjean, Armand Rossi
  • Patent number: 6478946
    Abstract: A method of preparing organic acids (fulvic, humic, and ulmic) for use as an electrolyte for producing high ionizations of precious metals (such as silver) which entails leaching out the organic acid from its source, stabilizing the organic acid first with ascorbic acid followed by sodium benzoate, removing cations, and using the organic acid as an electrolyte. A precious metal (such as silver) is used as a sacrificial electrode in this electrolyte. A non-sacrificial electrode could either be the same precious metal or an inert non-precious metal (titanium or graphite carbons). If the same material is used for the non-sacrificial electrode as for the sacrificial electrode, the size of each electrode may be about the same. If different material is used for the non-sacrificial electrode, its size should be larger that of the sacrificial electrode. Current at about 2 or more volts is applied to the electrodes and the ionization process begins yielding high concentrations of ionized precious metals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2002
    Assignee: The Chemins Company, Inc.
    Inventor: Kenneth D. Westwood
  • Publication number: 20010023831
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for removing a chemical product species produced by electrochemical action at an electrode or by a chemical reaction which occurs at the surface of a solid catalyst. The method involves providing a flow of a host solution generally parallel to a surface at which a chemical reaction occurs. The flow of the host solution causes the products from the chemical reaction to be entrained in a thin boundary layer which moves along the surface. These products can be removed from a cell by withdrawing the boundary layer from the cell as it reaches the trailing edge of the surface. The products may additionally be removed at intermediate points along the surface to prevent the host solution from becoming depleted. Various apparatus for practising this method are also described. The apparatus and method are capable of removing a desired product species in a more highly concentrated form than is possible with commonly available current techniques and apparatus.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 29, 2001
    Publication date: September 27, 2001
    Inventors: Edward Gerald Hauptmann, Clive M.H. Brereton, Glenn R. Stefurak
  • Patent number: 6221234
    Abstract: A method for pickling products in a metal alloy containing iron, and products in titanium and alloys thereof, in the absence of nitric acid as an oxidizing agent, and for the recovery of the exhausted solutions, characterized in that the recovery of the exhausted solutions deriving from pickling comprises the following steps: sending of the pickling solution, both as catholyte and as anolyte, in an electro-chemical cell optionally of the membrane type to separate the Fe2+ (or Ti2+) ions to be disposed of, from the Fe3+ (or of the Ti3+ and Ti4+) ions to be recovered, obtained by reduction at the cathode of the Fe3+ ions which are in the catholyte to Fe2+ (or of the Ti3+ and Ti4+ ions to Ti2+) and of oxidation at the anode Fe2+ (or Ti2+) ions which are in the anolyte to Fe3+ (to Ti3+ and Ti4+); treating the catholytic solution coming out of the cell and enriched in Fe2+ (or Ti2+) ions as to allow the separation in two phases, a
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: Acciai Speciali Terni S.p.A.
    Inventors: Franco Mancia, Sandro Fortunati
  • Patent number: 6181396
    Abstract: A reflective liquid crystal display apparatus reflective plate includes embodiments with a full-width at half maximum value in a distribution graph of distances between adjacent projecting or recessed portions with an average of the distances between the adjacent projecting or recessed portions within 0.3 to 0.9; an average of distances between adjacent projecting or recessed portions within 1 &mgr;m to 80 &mgr;m; a full-width at half maximum value in a distribution graph of heights of projecting or recessed portions with an average of the heights falling within 0.2 to 0.9; a maximum height of corrugations on a surface of the reflective plate within 0.1 &mgr;m to 5 &mgr;m; and a region having a horizontal inclination angle of 0° occupying 20% or less of an entire region inside the surface of the pixel electrode and also with an average inclination angle of corrugations in the entire region is 50 to 10° in all azimuths on the pixel electrode as the reflective plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2001
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroshi Kanoh, Eishi Mizobata
  • Patent number: 5716512
    Abstract: Process and equipment for manufacturing salts of metals, particularly nickel hypophosphite, are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1998
    Inventor: Daniel J. Vaughan
  • Patent number: 5676817
    Abstract: Process for the production of pure tungsten and/or molybdenum solutions from sources, such as alkaline decomposition solutions, which are contaminated with tantalum, niobium, titanium, aluminium, tin, arsenic, phosphorus and/or silicon, by application of a three stage purification process of pH reduction, anion exchange and membrane electrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1997
    Assignee: H.C. Starck, GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Wilfried Gutknecht, Wolfgang Mathy
  • Patent number: 5599435
    Abstract: Insertion compounds that are not stable in pure water can be prepared by an aqueous electrochemical method. The pH of the electrolyte and/or the concentration of ions of the inserted species must be sufficiently high to provide stability for the product compound. The method is useful for further lithiation of conventional lithium ion battery cathode materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1997
    Assignee: Moli Energy (1990) Limited
    Inventors: Wu Li, Jeffrey R. Dahn