Preparing Organic Compound Patents (Class 205/413)
  • Publication number: 20080223727
    Abstract: In various embodiments, the invention provides electro-chemical processes for reduction of carbon dioxide, for example converting carbon dioxide to formate salts or formic acid. In selected embodiments, operation of a continuous reactor with a three dimensional cathode and a two-phase (gas/liquid) catholyte flow provides advantageous conditions for electro-reduction of carbon dioxide. In these embodiments, the continuous two-phase flow of catholyte solvent and carbon dioxide containing gas, in selected gas/liquid phase volume flow ratios, provides dynamic conditions that favour the electro-reduction of COs at relatively high effective superficial current densities and gas space velocities, with relatively low reactor (cell) voltages (<10 Volts). In some embodiments, relatively high internal gas hold-up in the cathode chamber (evident in an internal gas to liquid phase volume ratio >0.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 13, 2006
    Publication date: September 18, 2008
    Inventors: Colin Oloman, Hui Li
  • Patent number: 7419580
    Abstract: A catalyst comprising Pt—Co alloy, or Pt—Co—Sn alloy or Pt—ComOn mixed metal oxides is disclosed to be used as a catalyst for the direct electrochemical oxidation of glucose or other simple sugars and carbohydrates at room temperature. The catalyst can be supported on metal electrodes, graphite electrodes, porous carbon electrodes, or gas diffusion electrodes. An electrode containing this catalyst will be used as the key component in a direct glucose-air fuel cell operating in alkaline media with a good room temperature performance. This catalyst can also be applied as a key electrode material in a glucose sensor to detect glucose concentration in neutral or alkaline medium. The preparation method of the catalyst, optimum composition, and results of glucose sensor and glucose fuel cell applications are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2008
    Assignee: The University of Hong Kong
    Inventors: Kwong-Yu Chan, Xin Zhang, Chung Man Lam, Alfred C. C. Tseung, Pei Kang Shen, Jin Kua You
  • Patent number: 7338587
    Abstract: An electrochemical process for the oxidation of an alkane to at least one corresponding alkene uses an electrochemical cell having an anode chamber on one side of a proton conducting medium, and a cathode chamber on the other side of the said medium. The alkane is oxidized in the anode chamber to produce at least one corresponding alkene and protons are transferred through a proton conducting membrane to the cathode chamber where protons combine with a proton acceptor, while generating electricity and water. An apparatus for use in the process is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2008
    Assignee: The Governors of the University of Alberta
    Inventors: Karl T. Chuang, Alan R. Sanger, Jingli Luo, Stefan V. Slavov
  • Patent number: 7273541
    Abstract: A method of electrolytic synthesis comprises applying a potential between a first electrode and a second electrode. The first electrode is in contact with a first fluid stream in a channel, the second electrode is in contact with a second fluid stream in the channel, and the first steam and the second stream are in parallel laminar flow in the channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2007
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
    Inventors: Eric R. Choban, Piotr Waszczuk, Paul J. A. Kenis, Theodore Tzedakis, Seong Kee Yoon, Cheikhou Kane
  • Patent number: 7192512
    Abstract: A process is provided for the preparation of trialkyl orthocarboxylates by the electrochemical oxidation of alpha, beta-diketones or alpha, beta-hydroxyketones, the keto group being present in the form of a ketal group derived from C1- to C4-alkylalcohols and the hydroxyl group optionally being present in the form of an ether group derived from C1- to C4-alkylalcohols (ketals K), in the presence of C1- to C4-alcohols (alcohols A), the molar ratio of the ketals K to the alcohols A in the electrolyte being 0.2:1 to 10:1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2007
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Andreas Fischer, Hermann Pütter
  • Patent number: 7122106
    Abstract: A method for producing an array of oriented nanofibers that involves forming a solution that includes at least one electroactive species. An electrode substrate is brought into contact with the solution. A current density is applied to the electrode substrate that includes at least a first step of applying a first substantially constant current density for a first time period and a second step of applying a second substantially constant current density for a second time period. The first and second time periods are of sufficient duration to electrically deposit on the electrode substrate an array of oriented nanofibers produced from the electroactive species. Also disclosed are films that include arrays or networks of oriented nanofibers and a method for amperometrically detecting or measuring at least one analyte in a sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2006
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Yuehe Lin, Liang Liang, Jun Liu
  • Patent number: 7087147
    Abstract: The application of an electric current to catalysts useful for the vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbons allows for processes for obtaining enhanced catalytic processing of a given feed material with a given catalyst, processes allowing the ready change-over from one product of a given feed stream to another product of that feed stream without the need to change catalyst, and processes allowing the ready change over from one feed stream to another feed stream with the concomitant change over from one product to another product without the need to change catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2006
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Company
    Inventors: Daniel Arthur Bors, Anne Mae Gaffney, Stephen Gerard Maroldo
  • Patent number: 7001500
    Abstract: The application of an electric current to catalysts useful for the vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbons allows for processes for obtaining enhanced catalytic processing of a given feed material with a given catalyst, processes allowing the ready change-over from one product of a given feed stream to another product of that feed stream without the need to change catalyst, and processes allowing the ready change over from one feed stream to another feed stream with the concomitant change over from one product to another product without the need to change catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2006
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Company
    Inventors: Daniel Arthur Bors, Anne Mae Gaffney, Stephen Gerard Maroldo
  • Patent number: 6991718
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an electrochemical process for producing ionic liquids. The ionic liquids may be hydrophilic or hydrophobic ionic liquids. The ionic liquids are made by subjecting an electrochemical cell to electrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2006
    Assignee: Sachem, Inc.
    Inventor: Roger Moulton
  • Patent number: 6984303
    Abstract: An electrochemical process for the preparation of water-soluble colorants, particularly triphenylmethane colorants and other water soluble technical dyes, is disclosed. In this process, the anode in the electrochemical cell comprises an open pore carbon material having specific void volume and surface area characteristics. A preferred electrode material is a carbon felt pad, preferably between about 1/16 inch and ¼ inch in thickness. This process provides faster reaction rates than electrochemical processes using standard electrodes, as well as higher yields compared to processes using chemical oxidizing agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2006
    Assignee: Noveon IP Holdings Corp.
    Inventors: Joseph D. Kern, Gene P. Wesseler
  • Publication number: 20040253726
    Abstract: Caged compounds, i.e. synthetic chemical compounds whose chemical or biochemical activity is normally controlled by photolysis to release an active moiety to participate in a chemical or biochemical reaction, are subjected to electrical current instead of light to release the active moiety. The process is especially useful in chemiluminescent biochemical assays, where it is required to measure the light output in order to quantify the analyte under measurement, since avoids confusion between input energy to trigger the reaction, and light output for measurement purposes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2004
    Publication date: December 16, 2004
    Inventor: Yahia A Gawad
  • Patent number: 6825367
    Abstract: A method of electrochemically hydrogenating an oil, the method comprising reacting unsaturated fatty acids in the oil with hydrogen in the presence of a formate electrocatalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2004
    Assignee: Board of Trustees of Southern Illinois University
    Inventors: Shashi B. Lalvani, Kanchan Mondal
  • Publication number: 20040195108
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for producing compounds of general formula (I), wherein Rt represents an oxocyclohexyl radical which is optionally substituted by a hydroxyl radical, an alkoxy radical, and/or alkyl radicals, or an oxocyclohexenyl radical which is optionally substituted by a hydroxyl radical, an alkoxy radical, and/or alkyl radicals, the oxo groups being in the form of an acetal, a ketone, or an enol ether, and R2 represents a hydroxy group or a protective group which can be transformed into a hydroxy group by means of hydrolysis. A compound of general formula (II) is cathodically reduced in a divided or partially divided electrolysis cell at a pH value of between 2 and 9.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 13, 2004
    Publication date: October 7, 2004
    Inventors: Jorg Botzem, Hansgeorg Ernst, Johannes Grimmer, Claudia Merk, Thomas Muller, Manfred Sauerwald
  • Publication number: 20040163968
    Abstract: An electrochemical process for the preparation of water-soluble colorants, particularly triphenylmethane colorants and other water soluble technical dyes, is disclosed. In this process, the anode in the electrochemical cell comprises an open pore carbon material having specific void volume and surface area characteristics. A preferred electrode material is a carbon felt pad, preferably between about {fraction (1/16)} inch and ¼ inch in thickness. This process provides faster reaction rates than electrochemical processes using standard electrodes, as well as higher yields compared to processes using chemical oxidizing agents.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 25, 2003
    Publication date: August 26, 2004
    Inventors: Joseph D. Kern, Gene P. Wesseler
  • Patent number: 6758957
    Abstract: Carbon nanoparticles including both nanofilaments and nanotubes produced by an electrochemical deposition method from organic solutions at room temperature, in which the formation and growth of carbon nanoparticles are stimulated by the catalyst, such as iron and nickel. It has been found that the electrochemical deposition conditions have a strong influence on the growth phenomenon of the carbon nanotubes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmitting electron microscope (TEM) characterizations show that the diameter of nanotubes is of the order of approximately 100 nm, and the length of filaments can be up to approximately 50 &mgr;m, depending on the size of catalyst particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 6, 2004
    Assignee: University of Central Florida
    Inventors: Dan Zhou, Lee Chow
  • Publication number: 20040124093
    Abstract: The invention relates to several apparatuses and methods for the continuous production of carbon soot with a high content of fullerenes, endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs), and carbon nanotubes. In addition, the invention relates to anaerobic manipulations of carbon-based compounds. The claimed apparatuses and methods provide optimal conditions during annealing processes. In particular, the rotary shielding block of the present invention can effectively prevent resultant products from exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation associated with vaporization processes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 14, 2003
    Publication date: July 1, 2004
    Inventors: Dal-Young Jung, Kook-Hyang Lee, Doo-Young Chung
  • Patent number: 6733652
    Abstract: In a process for the electrolytic transformation of at least one organic compound in an electrolysis cell, the organic compound is both oxidized and reduced at one electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2004
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hermann Pütter, Guido Gutenberger
  • Patent number: 6730211
    Abstract: This invention discloses an aqueous cathodic electrolyzed solution of ascorbyl glucosamine exhibiting a lower oxidation-reduction potential than that in an aqueous solution of ascorbyl glucosamine in which a concentration of water-soluble inorganic salts is less than 0.1 M prepared by electrolyzing the starting ascorbyl glucosamine solution as well as a preparation process therefor. A concentration of ascorbyl glucosamine is 0.1 to 3 wt %. A current density in electrolysis is preferably 0.003 to 0.03 A/cm2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2004
    Assignees: Mikuni Corporation
    Inventor: Kokichi Hanaoka
  • Publication number: 20040050713
    Abstract: An electrochemical process for the oxidation of an alkane to at least one corresponding alkene uses an electrochemical cell having an anode chamber on one side of a proton conducting medium, and a cathode chamber on the other side of the said medium. The alkane is oxidized in the anode chamber to produce at least one corresponding alkene and protons are transferred through a proton conducting membrane to the cathode chamber where protons combine with a proton acceptor, while generating electricity and water. An apparatus for use in the process is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 10, 2003
    Publication date: March 18, 2004
    Inventors: Karl T. Chuang, Alan R. Sanger, Jingli Luo, Stefan V. Slavov
  • Patent number: 6695963
    Abstract: Disclosed is an organic electrolysis reactor for performing an electrolytic oxidation reaction of a system comprising a substrate and a reductant, comprising: a casing; an anode which comprises an anode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive; a cathode which comprises a cathode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive; and means for applying a voltage between the anode and the cathode, wherein the means for applying a voltage is disposed in the outside of the casing and connected to the anode and the cathode, wherein the anode and the cathode are disposed in spaced relationship in the casing to partition the inside of the casing into an intermediate compartment between the anode and the cathode, and an anode compartment on the outside of the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2004
    Assignee: Asahi Kasei Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Otsuka, Ichiro Yamanaka, Ken Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6692632
    Abstract: A method of reacting chemicals comprising the exposure of the reactants to ultrasound and electrochemical energies in the presence of a metal or metal salt and hydrogen peroxide. HO* radicals are efficiently formed and react with a carbon-based reactant to form a carbon radical which then reacts with other reactants or may dimerize. The invention regenerates the metal ions and may be performed using no special facilities. Increased product yield was achieved for a number of hydroxylation reactions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2004
    Assignee: University of Abertay Dundee
    Inventors: David Bremner, Arthur Ernest Burgess
  • Publication number: 20040007475
    Abstract: There is a control system for a catalytic process. The control system has the following: a) an electroconductive support having a layer of a catalyst thereon; b) a means for applying DC current of one polarity to the catalyst layer and the opposite polarity to the electroconductive support; c) a means for controlling and varying the application of DC current; d) a means for measuring the polarization impedance across the catalyst layer and the electroconductive support; e) a means for comparing the measured polarization impedance with a reference value; and f) a means for varying the application of DC current to the catalyst layer and the electroconductive support when the measured polarization impedance differs from the reference value.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2003
    Publication date: January 15, 2004
    Applicant: Catelectric, Inc.
    Inventors: Victor Stancovski, Sridhar Seetharaman
  • Patent number: 6669828
    Abstract: A cathode is made of an electrically conducting support with a coating of electrochemically deposited lead with a density between 0.001 and 2 g/cm3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2003
    Assignee: Consortium für Elektrochemische Industrie GmbH
    Inventor: Elke Fritz-Langhals
  • Patent number: 6627063
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for the electrochemical reduction of vat and sulfur dyes in aqueous solutions, in steady-state conditions of reaction and a cycle which is largely free of reducing agents. The invention also relates to apparatus for carrying out said method. The steady-state conditions of reaction are obtained by means of a start reaction. The substances used for this reaction and the products resulting therefrom are extracted from the cycle. To maintain the cycle only dyes, an alkali and possibly small quantities of additional substances, such as surface-active agents, need to be added. No other chemicals active in the oxidation-reduction process are used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2003
    Inventors: Walter Marte, Otmar Dossenbach, Ulrich Meyer
  • Patent number: 6620305
    Abstract: An electrolytic process for the preparation of a compound having a charged electrolytic cell fitted with at least one anode and at least one cathode in a single compartment with a reaction mixture. An electric potential is applied to the at least one anode and at least one cathode under conditions to promote formation of a compound on one of the cathodes or the anode to define a formation electrode. The formation electrode is then agitated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2003
    Assignee: Cornell Development Corporation LLC
    Inventors: Paul W. Cornell, Stephen W. Cornell
  • Patent number: 6607655
    Abstract: Reactor for carrying out electrochemical reactions with an electrode and a counter-electrode are known, whereby the electrodes are separated form one another by a capillary gap. Such reactors do not comprise a homogeneous flow rate distribution in the capillary gap which can thus lead to a reduction of selectivity and of local temperature increases. In addition, high ohmic resistance requires the use of conducting salts. The aim of the invention is to provide a reactor in which the voltage drop in the electrolyte is minimized and which can be better optimized over a short resistance time distribution. To this end, the capillary gap comprises at least one channel as a reaction chamber having a height less than or equal to 200 &mgr;m. According to the inventive method, the volume flow of the educt current is measured such that the flow of the educt current is laminar over the length of the channel having a height less than or equal to 200 &mgr;m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2003
    Assignee: Institut fur Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH
    Inventors: Holger Lowe, Michael Kupper, Athanassios Ziogas
  • Publication number: 20030146103
    Abstract: The present invention provides novel processes for preparing a fluorinated acyl fluoride and a fluorinated vinyl ether.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 28, 2003
    Publication date: August 7, 2003
    Applicant: ASAHI GLASS COMPANY LIMITED
    Inventors: Takashi Okazoe, Kunio Watanabe, Masahiro Ito, Daisuke Shirakawa, Shin Tatematsu
  • Publication number: 20030106804
    Abstract: The present invention provides a cationic coating composition capable of forming a coating film which is excellent in an electrodepositablly coating property and an adhesive property toward a rust preventive steel plate, a corrosion resistance and a low temperature curability. The cationic coating composition described above comprises as a vehicle component, a xylene-formaldehyde resin-modified, amino group-containing epoxy resin obtained by reacting an epoxy resin (A) having an epoxy equivalent of 180 to 2500 with a xylene-formaldehyde resin (B) and an amino group-containing compound (C).
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 15, 2002
    Publication date: June 12, 2003
    Inventors: Shigeo Nishiguchi, Koji Kamikado, Susumu Midogochi, Akira Tominaga, Akihiko Shimasaki, Hideki Iijima
  • Patent number: 6569308
    Abstract: An electrode for electrochemical uses is made of a conductive metal mesh coated with diamond-like carbon or dirty diamond. The electrode may be used in electrochemical cell either as a cathode or as an anode, or can be used with an alternating current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2003
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Paul M. Natishan, William E. O'Grady, Patrick L. Hagans, Brian R. Stoner
  • Patent number: 6569309
    Abstract: Disclosed is a fuel cell type reactor for performing an oxidation reaction of a system comprising a substrate, a reductant and an oxidant, comprising: a casing; an anode which comprises an anode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive; and a cathode which comprises a cathode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive, wherein the anode and the cathode are disposed in spaced relationship in the casing to partition the inside of the casing into an intermediate compartment between the anode and the cathode, an anode compartment on the outside of the anode and a cathode compartment on the outside of the cathode, and wherein the intermediate compartment has an inlet for an electrolyte solution and a substrate, the anode compartment has an inlet for a reductant, and the cathode compartment has an inlet for an oxidant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2003
    Assignee: Asahi Kasei Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Otsuka, Ichiro Yamanaka, Ken Suzuki
  • Publication number: 20030050437
    Abstract: A solid phase synthesis method for the preparation of diverse sequences of separate polymers or nucleic acid sequences using electrochemical placement of monomers or nucleic acids at a specific location on a substrate containing at least one electrode that is preferably in contact with a buffering or scavenging solution to prevent chemical crosstalk between electrodes due to diffusion of electrochemically generated reagents.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 30, 2002
    Publication date: March 13, 2003
    Inventor: Donald D. Montgomery
  • Publication number: 20030050438
    Abstract: A solid phase synthesis method for the preparation of diverse sequences of separate polymers or nucleic acid sequences using electrochemical placement of monomers or nucleic acids at a specific location on a substrate containing at least one electrode that is preferably in contact with a buffering or scavenging solution to prevent chemical crosstalk between electrodes due to diffusion of electrochemically generated reagents.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 30, 2002
    Publication date: March 13, 2003
    Inventor: Donald D. Montgomery
  • Publication number: 20030029733
    Abstract: Disclosed is a fuel cell type reactor for performing an oxidation reaction of a system comprising a substrate, a reductant and an oxidant, comprising: a casing; an anode which comprises an anode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive; and a cathode which comprises a cathode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive, wherein the anode and the cathode are disposed in spaced relationship in the casing to partition the inside of the casing into an intermediate compartment between the anode and the cathode, an anode compartment on the outside of the anode and a cathode compartment on the outside of the cathode, and wherein the intermediate compartment has an inlet for an electrolyte solution and a substrate, the anode compartment has an inlet for a reductant, and the cathode compartment has an inlet for an oxidant.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 9, 2001
    Publication date: February 13, 2003
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Otsuka, Ichiro Yamanaka, Ken Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6495023
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial, cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2002
    Assignee: Michigan State University
    Inventors: Gregory J. Zeikus, Hyoun S. Shin, Mahendra K. Jain
  • Patent number: 6461766
    Abstract: An anti-pyrophoric hydrogen storage material having an engineered surface oxide to enhance initial activation and a method for making the same. The method for making. the hydrogen storage material includes the steps of providing a hydrogen storage powder and oxidizing the powder with a controlled oxidation reaction. In a preferred aspect hereof, the method includes providing a bulk hydrogen storage alloy; hydriding the alloy to form a comminuted material; and oxidizing the surface of the comminuted material with a controlled oxidation reaction. In another preferred aspect hereof, a passivating material is added to the comminuted material prior to the step for oxidizing to enhance initial activation. In still another preferred aspect hereof, at least one sacrificial modifier is provided in the particalized material to enhance initial activation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2002
    Assignee: Ovonic Battery Company, Inc.
    Inventors: Kwo Young, Michael A. Fetcenko, Stanford R. Ovshinsky
  • Patent number: 6398938
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention provides a process, which includes: electrochemically oxidizing at least one organic compound by bringing the organic compound into contact with an anode, wherein the anode includes: an electrically conductive support; and an electrically conductive, anodically polarized layer on the support; wherein the anodically polarized layer is formed in situ upon the support by precoating; and wherein the organic compound is not phosphonomethyliminodiacetic acid. Another embodiment of the present invention provides a product, produced by the above process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2002
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Claudia Merk, Günther Huber
  • Publication number: 20020029977
    Abstract: An electrode for electrochemical uses is made of a conductive metal mesh coated with diamond-like carbon or dirty diamond. The electrode may be used in electrochemical cell either as a cathode or as an anode, or can be used with an alternating current.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 25, 2001
    Publication date: March 14, 2002
    Inventors: Paul M. Natishan, William E. OGrady, Brian R. Stoner, Patrick L. Hagans
  • Publication number: 20020008038
    Abstract: An array of selectively addressible microelectrodes for combinatorial synthesis of complex polymers or alloys.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 22, 2000
    Publication date: January 24, 2002
    Applicant: TheraSense, Inc.
    Inventors: Adam Heller , Daren J. Caruana
  • Publication number: 20020008039
    Abstract: A novel process for the continuous preparation of perfluorinated organic compounds by electrochemical fluorination of the parent non-fluorinated or partially fluorinated organic compounds by means of hydrogen fluoride having an arsenic content of less than about 10 ppm can be operated over a prolonged period of time without the electrode area-time yield decreasing over time.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 22, 2001
    Publication date: January 24, 2002
    Inventors: Andreas Bulan, Joachim Herzig, Gunter Lailach
  • Patent number: 6306280
    Abstract: An electroenzymatic reactor comprises a reaction vessel having a working electrode compartment. Within the working electrode compartment is a reactor solution containing a redox enzyme, a redox carrier, and an oxidizable or reducible substrate. Also within the working electrode compartment is a reference electrode and a metal oxide working electrode capable of being held close to the redox potential of the redox carrier. A counter electrode is provided outside the working electrode compartment. Necessary molecular oxygen or hydrogen is supplied to the reaction by water electrolysis at the counter electrode. Hydrogen peroxide that is generated at the working electrode or counter electrode is decomposed by a screen situated near the hydrogen-peroxide generating electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2001
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Commerce
    Inventors: Vytautas P. Reipa, Vincent L. Vilker
  • Publication number: 20010019020
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention provides a process, which includes:
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 22, 2000
    Publication date: September 6, 2001
    Applicant: BASF AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT
    Inventors: Claudia Merk, Gunther Huber
  • Patent number: 6270649
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2001
    Assignee: Michigan State University
    Inventors: Joseph G. Zeikus, Doo Park
  • Patent number: 6267864
    Abstract: Methods and devices for transforming less desirable chemical species into more desirable or useful chemical forms are disclosed. The specifications can be used to treat pollutants into more benign compositions and to produce useful chemicals from raw materials and wastes. The methods and devices disclosed utilize continuous or temporary pulse of electrical current induced by electromagnetic field and high surface area formulations. The invention can also be applied to improve the performance of existing catalysts and to prepare novel devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2001
    Assignee: Nanomaterials Research Corporation
    Inventors: Tapesh K. Yadav, Bijan K. Meramadi
  • Patent number: 6231746
    Abstract: A method of electrochemistry is conducted by conducting the direct electrochemistry of a monooxygenase enzyme in the absence of mediators. A method of electrochemistry is conducted by conducting the direct electrochemistry of an hydroxylase enzyme in the absence of mediators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2001
    Assignee: BG plc
    Inventors: Howard Dalton, Hugh Allen Oliver Hill, Jurate Kazlauskaite, Patricia Callahan Wilkins
  • Patent number: 6217740
    Abstract: The invention concerns a process for electrochemically producing a carbonaceous material with its surface modified by organic groups, in particular functionalized organic groups. The process comprises providing a solution, in a protic or aprotic solvent, comprising a salt of a carboxylate of an organic residue capable of undergoing a Kolbe reaction. The solution is then put in contact with a carbonaceous material, wherein the carbonaceous material is positively polarized with respect to a cathode that is also in contact with the solution. The solution may optionally contain an electrolyte. The invention also concerns carbonaceous materials modified at the surface with arylmethyl groups and the use of these modified materials, for example, in the production of composite materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
    Inventors: Claude Andrieux, Felipe Gonzalez, Jean Pinson, Jean-Michel Saveant
  • Patent number: 6218556
    Abstract: An electrochemical process for hydrogenating an unsaturated fatty acid, mixtures of two or more fatty acids, or the unsaturated fatty acid constituents of an edible or non-edible oil's triglycerides is performed using a solid polymer electrolyte reactor. Membrane electrode assemblies consist of a cation exchange membrane onto which porous anode and cathode electrodes are attached. As the electrodes are permeable, reactant and products enter and leave the membrane/cathode and membrane/anode reaction zones via the back sides of the electrodes. Hydrogen is generated in situ by the electro-reduction of protons that are formed at the anode and which migrate through the ion exchange membrane for reaction with the fifty acids or fatty acid constituents. In the disclosed process, only protons (H+ ions) carry the current between the anode and the cathode. The need for a supporting electrolyte to conduct electricity has been circumvented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: The Administrators of the Tulane Educational Fund
    Inventor: Peter N. Pintauro
  • Patent number: 6214195
    Abstract: Methods and devices for transforming less desirable chemical species into more desirable or useful chemical forms are disclosed. The specifications can be used to treat pollutants into more benign compositions and to produce useful chemicals from raw materials and wastes. The methods and devices disclosed utilize electrical current induced by electromagnetic field and high surface area formulations. The invention can also be applied to improve the performance of existing catalysts and to prepare novel devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Nanomaterials Research Corporation
    Inventors: Tapesh Yadav, Bijan Meramadi
  • Patent number: 6210557
    Abstract: A process for the electrochemical oxidation of organic compounds, wherein the anode material used is a mixed oxide of formula (I) MoaBibX1cX2dX3eX4fX5gOh  (I) where X1 is V, Nb, Cr, W, Ta, Ga, Ce, and/or La; X2 is Li, La, K, Rb, Cs, Cu, Ag, Au, Pd and/or Pt; X3 is Fe, Co, Ni and/or Zn; X4 is Sn, Rb, Sb and/or Te; X5 is Ti, Zr, Si and/or Al; and where a is 0-3; b is 0-3; c is 0-12.5; d is 0-5; e is 0-1.5; f is 0-1; and g is 0-25 with the proviso that a+d≧0.15.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2001
    Assignee: Creavis Gesellschaft für Technologie und Innovation mbH
    Inventors: Guido Stochniol, Mark Duda, Adolf Kuehnle
  • Patent number: 6068756
    Abstract: Process for the reduction of halogenated hydrocarbons and for obtaining their derivatives in an electrolytic cell which includes at least one cathode, at least one anode and a solution. A hydrogen-permeable membrane is arranged in the at least one anode such that the at least one anode constitutes a hydrogen-diffusion anode, and hydrogen or a hydrogen-containing gas is supplied to the hydrogen-permeable membrane. An electrolytic cell for the reduction of halogenated hydrocarbons includes at least one high overpotential cathode containing lead, cadmium, graphite, copper and/or tin, at least one hydrogen-diffusion anode containing palladium and a solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2000
    Assignee: Sociedad Espanola de Carburos Metalicos S.A.
    Inventors: Juan Casado Gimenez, Pere-Lluis Cabot Julia
  • Patent number: 5919349
    Abstract: A process for the electrochemical reduction of an organic compound by bringing the organic compound into contact with a cathode, wherein the cathode comprises a support made of an electrically conductive material and an electrically conductive, cathodically polarized layer formed thereon in situ by alluviation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gunther Huber, Andreas Weiper-Idelmann, Andreas Kramer, Rolf Golombek, Markus Frede, Luise Spiske, Karl-Heinz Schehlmann, Volker Steuer